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Idaho Early Learning eGuidelines (no active links) IDAHO EARLY LEARNING eGUIDELINES WELCOME AGE RANGE OVERVIEWS BACKGROUND INTRODUCTION GUIDING PRINCIPLES ESSENTIAL PRACTICES CONTACTS FOR ASSISTANCE HOW TO FIND INFORMATION Use Bookmarks (activate Topics Menu) If Google Chrome is your web browser, click the Bookmark icon at the top right of your screen. If using Internet Explorer or Firefox, for instance, you may need to: 1) Move cursor to the bottom middle of screen to reveal the available options, and click the Adobe icon. and...2) Click on the Bookmark icon at far left of screen. Click on the Arrow icon ( >) in front of any topic. Expand a Doman to display the associated Goals. Expand a Goal to reveal the associated Age Groups. Goal 1 Expanded to Reveal AGE GROUPS Expand Topics (reveal sub-topics) Domain 1 Expanded to Reveal GOALS TIPS: Browser settings may impact your ability to view bookmarks. If this happens: 1) Try using a different web browser, such as Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, or Google Chrome. 2) Try updating your Adobe Reader program: • Open Reader and choose Help > About Adobe Reader. Make a note of your version. • Type the words “adobe reader download” in your browser’s search field, and open the Adobe webpage. • If a more recent version of Adobe Reader is offered, choose Install Now. • Click the downloaded file and follow the instructions. 3) Or, you may elect to download the file to your computer: Instead of opening the hotlink to the Early Learning Guidelines, right click on it, then choose “Save Target As”. NAVIGATION OPTIONS (if you are unable to access Bookmarks) Use Hotlinks: On Pages 4 - 8, click on the Hotlink for a Goal to reveal the matrixes for each Age Group relative to that Goal, or Move to a Specific Page: • Print Table of Contents (below) as a guide. • Hover cursor over either the top or bottom center of the screen (depending on your browser) to reveal one of the page navigation panels shown below. • Then, Highlight and Overtype the first number in the page range, and press Enter. TABLE OF CONTENTS (static) Idaho Early Learning eGuidelines Please Note: Pages 4 – 8 provide hotlinks to each Goal DOMAIN 1 Pg 6 DOMAIN 2 Pg 120 DOMAIN 3 Pg 183 DOMAIN 4 Pg 272 DOMAIN 5 Pg 343 Approaches to Learning & Cognitive Development Physical Well-Being, Health, & Motor Social & Emotional General Knowledge Communication, Language, & Literacy Goal 1: Pg 8 Goal 17: Pg 122 Goal 27: Pg 185 Goal 39: Pg 274 Goal 48: Pg 345 Goal 2: Pg 15 Goal 18: Pg 128 Goal 28: Pg 194 Goal 40: Pg 282 Goal 49: Pg 351 Goal 3: Pg 22 Goal 19: Pg 134 Goal 29: Pg 201 Goal 41: Pg 288 Goal 50: Pg 357 Goal 4: Pg 29 Goal 20: Pg 140 Goal 30: Pg 208 Goal 42: Pg 295 Goal 51: Pg 363 Goal 5: Pg 36 Goal 21: Pg 146 Goal 31: Pg 215 Goal 43: Pg 303 Goal 52: Pg 370 Goal 6: Pg 43 Goal 22: Pg 152 Goal 32: Pg 222 Goal 44: Pg 312 Goal 53: Pg 377 Goal 7: Pg 50 Goal 23: Pg 158 Goal 33: Pg 229 Goal 45: Pg 323 Goal 54: Pg 383 Goal 8: Pg 57 Goal 24: Pg 164 Goal 34: Pg 235 Goal 46: Pg 331 Goal 55: Pg 389 Goal 9: Pg 64 Goal 25: Pg 171 Goal 35: Pg 243 Goal 47: Pg 337 Goal 56: Pg 395 Goal 10: Pg 71 Goal 26: Pg 177 Goal 36: Pg 250 Goal 57: Pg 401 Goal 11: Pg 78 Goal 37: Pg 257 Goal 58: Pg 408 Goal 12: Pg 85 Goal 38: Pg 265 Goal 59: Pg 414 Goal 13: Pg 92 Goal 60: Pg 421 Goal 14: Pg 99 Goal 61: Pg 427 Goal 15: Pg 106 Goal 62: Pg 433 Goal 16: Pg 113 Goal 63: Pg 440 Goal 64: Pg 446 IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES – ECONTENTS DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTION SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES Goal 1: Children show curiosity and interest in learning and experimenting. Goal 2: Children are able to generate new ideas, approaches, and activities in daily routines. Goal 3: Children are confident to initiate and complete activities using a variety of approaches. Goal 4: Children sustain attention to tasks even when faced with challenges and frustration. Goal 5: Children demonstrate an expanding ability to develop and carry out plans. Goal 6: Children show ability to change or adapt thought processes, applying previously learned concepts and skills to new situations. Goal 7: Mediated by individual temperament, children learn to understand and appreciate individual style in approaching and interacting with the world. SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES Goal 8: Children demonstrate awareness of cause and effect relationships. Goal 9: Children use prior relationships, experiences, and knowledge to expand understanding. Goal 10: Children show emerging ability to imitate behaviors that they have observed. Goal 11: Children find multiple solutions to questions, tasks, problems, and challenges, including trial and error. Goal 12: Children expand abilities for conjecture, hypothesizing, and guessing. Goal 13: Children compare, contrast, and evaluate experiences, tasks, and events building on prior knowledge. Goal 14: Children participate in exploratory play. Goal 15: Children participate in pretend or symbolic play. Goal 16: Children represent experiences and thought through symbolic representation such as movement, drawing, singing/vocalizing, and play. DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTION SUB-DOMAIN: MOTOR DEVELOPMENT Goal 17: Children demonstrate strength and coordination of large motor muscles. Goal 18: Children demonstrate strength and coordination of small motor muscles. Goal 19: Children use their senses (sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch) to guide and integrate their interactions. SUB-DOMAIN: PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Goal 20: Children demonstrate the stamina and energy to participate in daily activities. Goal 21: Children engage in a variety of physical activities. SUB-DOMAIN: HEALTH AND PERSONAL CARE Goal 22: Children practice basic personal care routines. Goal 23: Children demonstrate personal health and hygiene skills. SUB-DOMAIN: NUTRITION AND FEEDING Goal 24: Children eat a variety of nutritious foods. SUB-DOMAIN: SAFETY Goal 25: Children demonstrate knowledge about and avoid harmful objects and situations. Goal 26: Children demonstrate awareness and understanding of safety rules. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTION SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Goal 27: Children trust, interact with, and seek assistance from adults. Goal 28: Children develop friendships with peers. Goal 29: Children demonstrate positive negotiation skills. Goal 30: Children demonstrate awareness of behavior and its effects on others. Goal 31: Children participate positively in group activities. Goal 32: Children demonstrate sympathy and empathy. Goal 33: Children develop a sense of humor. Goal 34: Children adapt to diverse settings. Goal 35: Children recognize, appreciate, and respect similarities and differences in people. SUB-DOMAIN: EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Goal 36: Children perceive themselves as unique individuals. Goal 37: Children demonstrate belief in their abilities. Goal 38: Children regulate their feelings and impulses. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE INTRODUCTIONSUB-DOMAIN: MATHEMATICS AND NUMERACY Goal 39: Children demonstrate understanding of numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems. Goal 40: Children demonstrate understanding of measurable attributes of objects and the units, systems, and processes of measurement (including size, volume, height, weight, length, area, and time). Goal 41: Children demonstrate understanding of patterns, relations, and functions used to organize their world and facilitate problem solving. SUB-DOMAIN: SCIENCE Goal 42: Children observe, describe, and collect information by exploring the world around them. Goal 43: Children further engage in exploring and making sense of the natural world by asking questions and making predictions about cause and effect relations that can lead to generalizations. SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL STUDIES Goal 44: Children differentiate between people, places, activities, and events in the past and present that relate to self, group identity, and a sense of their community. Goal 45: Children demonstrate awareness and understanding of individual fairness, group rights, and responsibilities (democratic ideals) for membership and participation in group activities (successful citizenship). SUB-DOMAIN: CREATIVE ARTS Goal 46: Children use creative arts to express and represent what they know, think, believe, or feel. Goal 47: Children demonstrate understanding and appreciation of creative arts. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY INTRODUCTION SUB-DOMAIN: COMMUNICATION Goal 48: Children demonstrate the meaning of language by listening. Goal 49: Children communicate effectively. Goal 50: Children comprehend and use conventions of social communication. SUB-DOMAIN: LANGUAGE Goal 51: Children use receptive vocabulary. Goal 52: Children use expressive vocabulary. Goal 53: Children demonstrate progression in grammar and syntax. Goal 54: Children demonstrate comprehension and meaning in language. Goal 55: Children use language for a variety of purposes. SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY Goal 56: Children develop phonological awareness. Goal 57: Children demonstrate awareness of letters and symbols. Goal 58: Children demonstrate awareness of print concepts. Goal 59: Children demonstrate comprehension of printed materials and oral stories. Goal 60: Children demonstrate awareness that written materials can be used for a variety of purposes. Goal 61: Children demonstrate knowledge and use of letters and symbols. Goal 62: Children use writing skills and demonstrate knowledge of writing conventions. Goal 63: Children use writing for a variety of purposes. SUB-DOMAIN: ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS Goal 64: Children demonstrate competency in home language while acquiring beginning proficiency in English. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTION The Approaches to Learning and Cognitive Development domain covers the inclinations, dispositions, attitudes, habits, and styles that reflect the diverse ways that children learn. This domain is not about what skills children acquire, but how they construct meaningand how children orient themselves to learning. The developers of the Idaho Early Learning eGuidelines chose to link approaches to learning with cognitive development. Compelling research in cognitive psychology and brain development are expanding our understanding about “how“ and “when” the complexities of thinking and learning develop. The focus moves beyond looking at the development of brain structures and functions and encompasses the growth of the mind. The adult work is to support children in this process of active self-organization that creates new knowledge and understanding from everyday experiences. This domain spans development from birth through third grade. The Idaho K-12 Standards do not address approaches to learning and cognition. The ripple of cognitive development from birth through age eight is notable. Developmental learning and skills are essential to understanding children’s growth. The goals of Domains 1 and 3 were requested and needed by special education professionals to address needs and plan services. RATIONALE Approaches to learning and cognitive development are the platform on which learning takes place and include attributes which predispose children toward success in school and in life. Acknowledging children’s capacity to figure out a problem, apply their skills, and make larger meanings as their cognitive skills develop is foundational to a child’s continuing growth in approaching learning. By nurturing and supporting children’s individual approaches to learning, adults help children use their current knowledge and understanding of their world as a basis for creating meaningful new experiences and ideas. GENERAL DEFINITION Children’s approaches to learning include motivation, attitudes, habits, and cognitive styles that are demonstrated as they engage in learning and respond to different situations. Even though the ways in which children express their approaches to learning may vary according to their temperament or cultural contexts, the following goals are essential for children’s success in school and in life. For the purposes of the Idaho Early Learning eGuidelines, Domain 1: Approaches to Learning and Cognitive Development include: § Curiosity and Interest indicate children’s sense of inquisitiveness, interest in pursuing new information, keenness for new knowledge, and desire to learn. § Initiative indicates children’s willingness to take on tasks, volunteer to participate in learning activities, and take reasonable risks in learning new information. § Persistence and Attentiveness indicate children’s ability to stay with and concentrate attention to complete a task without being distracted or frustrated. Sometimes persistence is demonstrated by leaving a project and returning later for more work or elaboration. § Creativity and Invention indicate children’s ability to extend existing knowledge; and to have a “great idea” and make it happen. § Reflection and Interpretation indicate children’s ability to absorb, think about, compare, question, and understand knowledge and information to inform future actions and learning. § Concept Formation indicates children’s ability to imitate and remember people, carry out routines, and categorize information and objects from prior experience. § Reasoning and Logic indicates children’s growing skills to create and analyze attributes (similarities, differences, and associations between objects, events and people). These goals include causation, critical and analytical thinking, and problem solving. § Representational Thought and Play indicates children’s ability to explore actions and sensory experiences. Functional play is exploring objects or materials in the absence of fantasy, and includes sensory play (sand/water) and physical exploration. Pretending is a complex form of intellectual activity and a critical element in symbolic thinking and the symbolization process. In pretend play, children take on roles, have objects that are not present, and use things as substitutes for real objects. Through symbolic play and maturation, children come to distinguish between fantasy and reality, without losing either. Play is both the means and manifestation of children’s growing understanding of the world and their roles within their culture. SUPPORTING INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, LANGUAGE, AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY A discussion about Domain 1: Approaches to Learning and Cognitive Development acknowledges that children learn and express themselves in different ways. Skilled caregivers appreciate and value the diversity of children, families, and cultures; and strive to observe, understand, and support each child as an individual. Some children look and watch; seeming to figure out the situation before they move to engage. Other children may have great tactile sensitivity and use touch to explore or alternately to hold back from new sensations. Parents and caregivers can create supportive environments in which children are allowed to take risks and try new ideas, and in which creative processes of learning and expressing self are nurtured and valued. Caregivers who use children’s current knowledge and understanding of their world to build on that knowledge, help children create meaning from new experiences, relationships, and concepts. Children with differing abilities, with developmental delays or who are at risk for developmental delays, or with special talents may require particular attention and perhaps adaptations to foster their engagement in learning. Children are exposed to cultural patterns and values in their immediate context of family as well as in the neighborhood, community,and environment at large. At the family level, differences in child-rearing practices, including parental behaviors of instruction,modeling, and responses to children’s initiatives influence children’s learning approaches. Culture may influence children’s workstyles, the way they approach and interpret experiences, and their orientation to action or reflection. Some cultures encouragechildren to obey and defer to adult opinions while other cultures encourage children to question and negotiate with adults. Culturalpatterns also influence the way children learn. For example, some cultural settings promote learning through hands-on manipulationof materials, while others focus on visual representation, and still others focus on oral traditions of story telling or more structuredinteractions. Whatever the cultural influence on children’s predispositions, learning styles can be embraced as equal, valued, andrespected as a child approaches learning. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 1: CHILDREN SHOW CURIOSITY AND INTEREST IN LEARNING AND EXPERIMENTING. Domain 1: Approaches to Learning and Cognitive Development Sub-Domain: Learning Approaches Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten First, Second, and Third Grades DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES CURIOSITY, MOTIVATION, EXPLORATION, AND EXPERIMENTATION GOAL 1: CHILDREN SHOW CURIOSITY AND INTEREST IN LEARNING AND EXPERIMENTING. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through8 Months Seek, initiate, and respond to interactions with people and objects. § Shows interest in people by kicking legs, smiling, reaching, and looking at the person. § Reacts to new voices or sounds by turning in the direction ofsound, becoming more quiet or active, or changing facialexpressions. § Create a safe, secure, and attractive environment for children to explore toys, books, and caregiver. § Respond to and initiate play with the child during the course of everyday routines (diaperchanging, bathing). § Observe child to understand unique temperament, learning styles, and ways of showing curiosity. § Introduce child to new people, places, objects, and experiences. § In group child care settings, establish a primary caregiver to create a trusting relationship from which the child can explore. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES CURIOSITY, MOTIVATION, EXPLORATION, AND EXPERIMENTATION GOAL 1: CHILDREN SHOW CURIOSITY AND INTEREST IN LEARNING AND EXPERIMENTING. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Respond with verbalizations and curiosity to objects, people, and their traits. § Shows interest, explores, manipulates, or stares at objects in the environment. § Shows interest by pointing, gesturing, or verbalizing. § Explores objects through mouthing, banging, dumping, moving, and throwing. § Uses senses to explore the environment (tasting, touching,hearing, smelling, looking). § Experiments with objects and actions. § Provide support and time for child who is hesitant about new objects and experiences. § Play with child using objects with different textures, sounds,shapes, temperatures, and smells. § Provide safe floor play space for child to explore favorite toys and movement. § Point out places, objects, and what people are doing. § Offer variety in food, textures, and taste. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES CURIOSITY, MOTIVATION, EXPLORATION, AND EXPERIMENTATION GOAL 1: CHILDREN SHOW CURIOSITY AND INTEREST IN LEARNING AND EXPERIMENTING. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Display curiosity with deliberate exploration andexperimentation with peopleand objects. § Explores immediate environment (asks about a new object, actively searches through a collection of toys). § Shows interest in new activities and others’ activities. § Asks simple “wh” questions (why, who, what, where, and when). § Asks about people in their own environment. § Turns objects around, upside down, and inside out to examine the characteristics of the object. § Opens, closes, fills, empties, and builds up and knocks downobjects and containers. § Make child’s surroundings safe and inviting to encourage exploration. § To increase interest, provide child with a variety of safe objects/toysthat can be used in multiple ways. § Interact with child by asking simple questions and responding to his/her questions. § Wonder aloud with child about why, who, what, when, and where. § Describe and talk about what you see around you. § Read and tell stories that introduce the child to many people, places, and cultures. § Offer a variety of materials and activities that match child’s exploration style (a child who is slow to warm may respond best to an activity that allows play at the edge of the group, a blind child may explore best with materials that have a variety of textures). § Offer sensory play to include water and sand toys. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES CURIOSITY, MOTIVATION, EXPLORATION, AND EXPERIMENTATION GOAL 1: CHILDREN SHOW CURIOSITY AND INTEREST IN LEARNING AND EXPERIMENTING. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Become inquisitive; seeking information to build understanding and gaining descriptive vocabulary to seek understanding. § Asks others for information (e.g., “What is that?” “Why is the moon round?”). § Investigates and experiments with materials; matching, sorting,and grouping. § Shows interest in how and why others do things. § Uses “wh” questions to get additional information about howtheir world works (why, who, what, where and when). § Develops personal interests (trains, animals, dinosaurs). § Develops sense of competence by actively engaging in play and putting materials together in newways to test end results. § Builds a vocabulary of adjectives and adverbs to describe and categorize words and actions. § Uses fantasy and reality to explain phenomenon. § Provide opportunities and time for child to explore a variety of activities and materials, including those in the larger community and those from diverse cultures. § Identify and build on child's individual interests. § Provide a variety of stimulating, open-ended materials reflecting child's expressed interests, and self-directed time to use them. § Provide opportunities for child to explore ideas and ask questions where adults and other childrenlisten and respond. § Help child find answers to their questions by exploring together and asking open-ended questions (e.g., “I wonder...?” “How could that work?” “What do you think about…?” or “What ideas do you have?”). § Play question-and-answer games that inspire child’s curiosity. § Read about topics of interest with the child (trucks, insects, gardening) to demonstrate how and where people find information. § Elaborate and embellish a child’s utterances (Child says, “I rode the trike.” Adult responds, “Yes, yourode on the tricycle with two small wheels and one large wheel.”). § Offer many sensory play opportunities using textures, mixing substances, block play, and dramatic play. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES CURIOSITY, MOTIVATION, EXPLORATION, AND EXPERIMENTATION GOAL 1: CHILDREN SHOW CURIOSITY AND INTEREST IN LEARNING AND EXPERIMENTING. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Acquire the ability to think logically; showing increased interest for reasoning about complex information about people, objects, and actions. § Talks about new events and occurrences. § Asks questions about changes in their world. § Shows enthusiasm for field trips and other outings to new places. § Looks for new information, with assistance, and wants to knowmore about personal interests. § Uses available tools to explore (books, technology, other people). § Uses multiple strategies to explore a new situation or object. § Offer a variety of resources for gathering information to build on child’s interests (books, videos, field trips, technology). § Provide child with opportunities to use resources to answer questions (if a child wondersabout dinosaurs, find a dinosaur book at the library, search a child-appropriate website together). § Provide opportunities for child to learn about families and their surrounding environment. § Provide opportunities for child to observe and listen to adult conversations about why, who,what, where, and when. § Encourage child to invent make- believe stories. § Offer ample opportunity for dramatic play where the child isfree to try out roles and activities. § Offer time for experimenting with a variety of art media. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES CURIOSITY, MOTIVATION, EXPLORATION, AND EXPERIMENTATION GOAL 1: CHILDREN SHOW CURIOSITY AND INTEREST IN LEARNING AND EXPERIMENTING. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies First, Second, andThird Grades Make and test hypotheses;looking at a problem from morethan one perspective. § Explores self-directed interests. § Uses a variety of means to gather new information. § Knows where to find needed information, including seeking adult help. § Extends and elaborates with the help of peers. § Uses basic “if, then” logical thinking to explore a question. § Uses humor to express understanding of the multiple meanings of words and phrases. § Distinguishes between fantasy and reality using logical thinking. § Address children’s different learning styles and abilities by planning activities with multiple approaches. § Facilitate self-directed learning and problem solving through different modalities (visual,auditory, tactile). § Build on child’s interests by providing opportunities and time for child to collaborate with peers on group projects of interest to them. § Read a variety of books that interest the child, both fiction and nonfiction. § Encourage child to talk about their discoveries and discuss their ideas with others. § Provide opportunities for child to observe and listen to adultpresentations on topics of interest. § Offer opportunity for fantasy play, as well as opportunity for reasoned logic in play. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 2: CHILDREN ARE ABLE TO GENERATE NEW IDEAS, APPROACHES, AND ACTIVITIES IN DAILY ROUTINES. Domain 1: Approaches to Learning and Cognitive Development Sub-Domain: Learning Approaches Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten First, Second, and Third Grades DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES CREATIVITY AND INVENTIVENESS GOAL 2: CHILDREN ARE ABLE TO GENERATE NEW IDEAS, APPROACHES, AND ACTIVITIES IN DAILY ROUTINES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through8 Months Using all of their senses, actively explore themselves and their immediate surroundings. § Inspects own hands and feet, by mouthing. § Mouths, shakes, bangs, drops, or throws objects. § Responds to smells (especially mother’s smell). § Turns and responds to familiar voices and/or new sounds. § Cries, coos, and makes single syllable sounds around certain activities. § Startles easily around new sounds, smells, textures. § Play with baby every day. § Provide toys and experiences with a variety of colors, textures,sounds, shapes, and smells. § Change the materials, toys, and objects in baby’s environment regularly. § Use everyday routines to allow creativity, and sensory exploration (e.g., when feeding ababy let them touch the food while describing what they might befeeling, or telling a child, “this wipe will feel cold.”). § Describe what the baby is experiencing (e.g., “Oh, that feels squishy.” “Hear that drum go boom, boom, boom!”). DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES CREATIVITY AND INVENTIVENESS GOAL 2: CHILDREN ARE ABLE TO GENERATE NEW IDEAS, APPROACHES, AND ACTIVITIES IN DAILY ROUTINES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Use sensory exploration ofobjects and sounds by tryingdifferent things and makingdifferent noises or movements. § Imitates actions observed in another situation (tries to stack blocks after watching other children, bangs on a surface after watching drumming at a cultural event). § Uses objects differently and creatively (a bucket is turned upside down to build a tower orbe a pedestal). § Looks to caregiver for assurance when trying something new or risky. § Plays with sounds by babbling, cooing, or clicking their tongue. § Provide child time and opportunities to be spontaneous, silly, and messy. § Play with child in creative ways (using soft toys to create a puppetshow, tell imaginative stories using familiar characters and thelocal environment). § Reassure child to try something new and safe. § Provide time and materials for sensory exploration. § During daily routines, engage child in the task (e.g., singing, or push your hand in the sleeve of a coat and ask, “Where are your fingers?). DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES CREATIVITY AND INVENTIVENESS GOAL 2: CHILDREN ARE ABLE TO GENERATE NEW IDEAS, APPROACHES, AND ACTIVITIES IN DAILY ROUTINES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Use imagination and pretend play to plan experimentation with objects and roles. § Invents new uses for everyday materials (bangs on pots and pans). § Approaches tasks experimentally; adapting the use of objects as theplay evolves. § Displays understanding of how objects work together (gets the dustpan when an adult is sweeping the floor). § Enjoys opportunities for pretend play and creating things. § Uses creative language to describe events, sometimes with made-up sounds. § Builds with blocks and other manipulatives. § Plays with dolls, costumes, and acts out roles. § Model use of a variety of familiar and new learning materials and activities. § Provide child with art materials and a place to use them withoutadult-created models or specific instructions. § Allow child to mix toys or materials. § Provide opportunities for child to remain absorbed in play. § Engage child in creating using different media (clay, collage, paint, music, dance, block construction). § Engage child in exploration of raw (messy) materials such as sand,water, rocks, and outdoor exploration. § Encourage child to talk about and revisit their creative work. § Use open-ended questions and descriptive language when interacting with child. § Ensure that child has props from their own culture to support pretend play. § Encourage child to pretend, make-believe, and use theirimagination. § Sit with and talk with child at mealtime. § Make up stories with child. § Prepare food with the child. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES CREATIVITY AND INVENTIVENESS GOAL 2: CHILDREN ARE ABLE TO GENERATE NEW IDEAS, APPROACHES, AND ACTIVITIES IN DAILY ROUTINES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Expand personal expression through inventive language and play. § Uses dramatic play to take on roles. § Invents new activities or games. § Uses imagination to create a variety of ideas. § Creates and negotiates acceptable rules for group activities. § Makes up words, songs, or stories. § Expresses ideas through art, construction, movement, or music. § Engages in extensive pretend play that includes role play (play house or explorers). § Engages in open-ended exploration of raw materials(messy play). § Uses materials in a new or novel way. § Chooses new and different materials to represent thoughts. § Create an environment and a range of materials where child is encouraged to experiment and use their imagination. § Ask open-ended questions to encourage creative thinking. § Provide tasks where the goal is trying different strategies rather than right or wrong answers. § Ask child how a story may have ended differently (e.g., “What if...?”). § Provide opportunities for child to create and complete projects in their own way. § Engage child in creating and completing projects using differentmedia (clay, collage, paint, music, dance, chalk, box construction). § Demonstrate and explain how to be flexible about changes in routines and plans (provide more structure for child with special needs). § Provide child with access to artists and artwork from their ownand other cultures. § Maintain files of a child’s creative work for the child to revisit and comment on. § Display a variety of child’s creative work instead of mass- produced or teacher-createddisplay. § Engage child in drawing a series of pictures that represent or illustrate experiences or a story they have made up. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES CREATIVITY AND INVENTIVENESS GOAL 2: CHILDREN ARE ABLE TO GENERATE NEW IDEAS, APPROACHES, AND ACTIVITIES IN DAILY ROUTINES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Become more elaborate and cooperative in creative expression. § Uses dramatic or symbolic play to pretend. § Combines activities, materials, and equipment in new ways (builds tent by using a sheet orblanket around a table). § Completes projects differently from other children (uses a unique approach in block structures or paintings). § Makes changes to a familiar story by adding actions or characters. § Represents reality in a variety of ways (pretend play, drawing, making up songs, or making rhymes). § Approaches tasks and experiences with increased flexibility, imagination, andinventiveness. § Play make-believe games with child, including games that introduce the child to diverse people, places, and cultures (e.g., “If you were a frog, what would you think about the rain outside?”). § Ask open-ended questions that create an interaction and dialoguewith child (e.g., “What do you think about...?”). § Provide a variety of creative outlets for child (opportunities to dance, paint, build, make music, invent stories, and act them out). DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES CREATIVITY AND INVENTIVENESS GOAL 2: CHILDREN ARE ABLE TO GENERATE NEW IDEAS, APPROACHES, AND ACTIVITIES IN DAILY ROUTINES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies First, Second, andThird Grades Can solve problems and generate new ideas and multiple solutions using basic logic, systematic thinking, and perspective taking. § Relates their activities in the past, present, and future; engaging in "what if?" scenarios. § Generates multiple solutions to problems/projects. § Generates creative solutions in conjunction with their peers. § Takes into account others' views and perspectives. § Strives to represent reality. § Demonstrates understanding of how the basic, everyday, physical world works. § Provide experience with different materials (computer graphics, paper-mache¢, oil paints, music, language, and mechanical tools). § Provide opportunities for child to create objects of their own choosing by experimentation withmaterials. § Use visual arts along with curriculum for learning about other cultures. § Provide opportunities for the child to develop personal stories and poems. § Provide opportunities for children to work on projects together. § Offer a range of problem solving tasks from simple to complex (logical to abstract). IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 3: CHILDREN ARE CONFIDENT TO INITIATE AND COMPLETE ACTIVITIES USING A VARIETY OF APPROACHES. Domain 1: Approaches to Learning and Cognitive Development Sub-Domain: Learning Approaches Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten First, Second, and Third Grades DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES CONFIDENCE AND INITIATIVE GOAL 3: CHILDREN ARE CONFIDENT TO INITIATE AND COMPLETE ACTIVITIES USING A VARIETY OF APPROACHES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Engage in interactions with familiar people, and explore people and objects aroundthem. § Holds the attention of caregivers (smiles, babbles, sustains eye- contact). § Directs attention towards objects by reaching, grasping, or staringat them. § Examines a face, toy, or rattle for a brief period of time. § Repeats simple motions or activities (swats at a mobile,consistently reaches for objects). § Engages familiar adults and children in interactions. § Respond to child’s actions, and play with child during everyday routines and free time. § Follow child’s lead and/or choices in daily activities. § Provide opportunities for simple exploration on back and tummy, with supervision. § Interact with child during daily routines; explain what will happennext. § Provide opportunities for baby to watch others by placing them close to activities (bringing to dinner table or alongside other people as they play or work.). § Seek and sustain eye contact with the infant. Looking away and back as the infant cuesinteraction. § Mimic the infant’s sounds back to them. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES CONFIDENCE AND INITIATIVE GOAL 3: CHILDREN ARE CONFIDENT TO INITIATE AND COMPLETE ACTIVITIES USING A VARIETY OF APPROACHES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Seek out familiar people and objects to engage in pleasurable activities. § Remembers where favorite items are stored. § Focuses on the reader or storyteller for brief periods of time. § Tries different ways of doing things. § Shows willingness to try a new activity or a familiar activity in anew setting. § Expresses a desire to feed themselves in the culturally- defined manner. § Engages in and actively explores new surroundings. § Selects a book, toy, or item from several options. § Looks to their caregiver/parent for reassurance and moves away totry a new activity. § Shows preferences and dislikes for activities, experiences, and interactions. § Provide opportunities for child to choose toys to play with and books to read. § Provide opportunities for child to take reasonable and safe risks(stretch for an object beyond reach). § Provide many opportunities for active exploration and doing; discourage watching television or videos. § Encourage child to try something new; a texture, taste, movement, or object. § Involve child in daily routines; asking for their help (e.g., “Can you put your arm in the sleeve?”). Reinforce new skills (e.g., “Yes, you put your arm in the sleeve.”). § Get on the child’s physical level as you talk and engage each other. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES CONFIDENCE AND INITIATIVE GOAL 3: CHILDREN ARE CONFIDENT TO INITIATE AND COMPLETE ACTIVITIES USING A VARIETY OF APPROACHES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Take initiative in selecting activities and seeking out new experiences with familiar people, objects, and settings. § Initiates play with others. § Responds with “no!” or “mine!” when someone takes a toy. § Chooses one activity over another and pursues it for a brief period of time. § Proposes an idea for how to spend time. § Shows interest in wanting to take care of themselves (dressing). § Initiates activities at their caregivers’ suggestions. § Seeks and takes pleasure in both new and familiar skills and experiences. § Pretends to be in new and familiar places with new and familiar roles. § Shows willingness to try less familiar environments and situations; depending on temperament. § Plays beside others, using similar materials, though not necessarily sharing the same toy. § Provide time for child to engage in sustained activities; to be on “toddler time.” § Respond to child’s requests for assistance. § Limit environmental distractions to help child sustain attention to activities (turn television off while child plays in room). § Talk with child about their activities using open-ended questions (e.g., “How did you dothat?” “Tell me more.”). § Try new tasks with child and describe them. § Provide and support child’s choices during daily activities(choosing a book, cup, toy). § Help child feel safe and capable of trying something new or taking reasonable risks in a variety of settings. § Direct concerns about child's behavior or development to amedical or developmental expert (in partnership with the family). § Offer suggestions about how the child can play beside other children, as the child is learning to initiate such play. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES CONFIDENCE AND INITIATIVE GOAL 3: CHILDREN ARE CONFIDENT TO INITIATE AND COMPLETE ACTIVITIES USING A VARIETY OF APPROACHES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Display initiative and confidence interacting in a variety of social and physical settings. § Asks a peer to join in play. § Joins a play activity already in progress, with assistance. § Selects new activities during play time (selects characters for dress up, tries a new scooter). § Offers to help with chores (sweeping sand from the floor,helping to clean up juice spills). § Finds and uses materials to follow through on an idea (blocks for building a tower, blank paper and crayons for drawing about a story or experience). § Makes decisions about activities and materials to work with from the selection offered. § Plans time for completing activities. § Shows completed projects to others, and explains what they did. § Encourage child to pursue favorite activities. § Demonstrate and explain to child that taking reasonable risks is acceptable. § Facilitate play in groups, offer props to extend play. § Modify group activities to ensure participation of children with special needs. § Acknowledge when child initiates pro-social activities and point out the positive outcomes. § Provide environments that create opportunities for child to initiateactivities where failure is acceptable. § Recognize that child may not demonstrate and express initiative in the same way in all settings (may take initiative with peers but not in presence of elders). § Create opportunities to “save” art, blocks, or process activities sochild can return to them later. § Offer opportunities to display work, including three-dimensional structures. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES CONFIDENCE AND INITIATIVE GOAL 3: CHILDREN ARE CONFIDENT TO INITIATE AND COMPLETE ACTIVITIES USING A VARIETY OF APPROACHES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Initiate and sustain play and activities with confidence through increased personal and shared interests. § Chooses to work on a project because the activity is of personal interest. § Invents projects and works on them with little assistance. § Forms a plan for an activity and acts on it. § Tells the difference between appropriate and inappropriate (or dangerous) risk-taking, withassistance. § Chooses to leave a project and returns to it later for completion or elaboration. § Participates in displaying a completed project. § Provide opportunities for children to set and pursue goals. § Encourage children to follow through on own interests or projects. § Create projects for children to work on over time (planting seeds and nurturing them to watch them grow). § Provide opportunities for children to take on activities or responsibilities that last more thanone day (feeding the gerbil this week). § Provide adequate time and support for children to complete increasingly complex games or tasks. § Provide opportunities for children to work successfully together on complex projects. § Provide opportunities and assistance, if necessary, for children to join other children playing. § Provide opportunities for children to play by themselves and with others. § Encourage children to follow through on own interests by providing comments, information resources, or props, as needed. § Provide opportunities for children to interact with a variety of people (peers, elders, shopkeepers,neighbors). § Provide opportunities for children to form, design, and undertake activities and projects. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES CONFIDENCE AND INITIATIVE GOAL 3: CHILDREN ARE CONFIDENT TO INITIATE AND COMPLETE ACTIVITIES USING A VARIETY OF APPROACHES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies First, Second, and Third Grades Sustain autonomous work andalso contribute to groupefforts. Use rules andconventions to help them carryactivities out to conclusion. § Comments on self competence or self confidence in social, physical, or cognitive situations. § May exhibit feelings of helplessness (believes theycannot influence the world around them). § Shows awareness of gender and cultural differences in perceived competence. § Shows assertiveness toward rules and social conventions(older children can resolve conflicts between groups.). § Shares interests with peers, and displays mutual understanding of situations. § Takes initiative in selecting activities and approaches toproblems. § Sustains interest in and returns to creative projects over time. § Provide opportunities to extend projects related to themes over a period of time. § Provide opportunities for children to work on projects in groups. § Be sensitive to children's emerging ability to compare their competencies to others (social comparison), which can negatively influence their self- esteem. § Involve children in resolving conflicts when they occur between groups (girls and boys,cultural differences). § Respect cultural differences in the value placed on competition and cooperation. § Encourage children to solve their problems and acknowledge their efforts. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 4: CHILDREN SUSTAIN ATTENTION TO TASKS EVEN WHEN FACED WITH CHALLENGES AND FRUSTRATION. Domain 1: Approaches to Learning and Cognitive Development Sub-Domain: Learning Approaches Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten First, Second, and Third Grades DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES PERSISTENCE AND ATTENTIVENESS (MASTERY, MOTIVATION, CONCENTRATION) GOAL 4: CHILDREN SUSTAIN ATTENTION TO TASKS EVEN WHEN FACED WITH CHALLENGES AND FRUSTRATION. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through8 Months Briefly sustain attention to caregiver’s actions and objects in the environment. § Attends to and holds the attention of caregivers (smiles, babbles, sustains eye-contact). § Focuses on a face or object from a wide variety of stimuli (watches their own face in a mirror, staresat a rattle). § Directs attention towards objects or people by reaching for, grasping, or staring at them. § Examines a face, toy, or rattle for a brief period of time. § Repeats simple motions or activities (swat at a mobile, consistently reaches for objects). § Reaches for or moves body to resolve a frustration or challenge. § Encourage child to explore your face naming body parts. § Play repetitious games with child (“So Big,” or other games from thefamily’s culture). § Respond and play with child during the course of everyday routines and free time. § Provide space and times where child can play or work at tasks without interruptions. § Respond to child’s cue for stimulation (smile, talk, touch the child) and for the child’s cues for limiting stimulation. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES PERSISTENCE AND ATTENTIVENESS (MASTERY, MOTIVATION, CONCENTRATION) GOAL 4: CHILDREN SUSTAIN ATTENTION TO TASKS EVEN WHEN FACED WITH CHALLENGES AND FRUSTRATION. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Focus on stimulating activities and return to them after distractions. § Persists with a task or challenge (pulling up to a low table). § Returns to a desired task even when distracted, (banging a toy,dumping a container, pulling up, or trying to walk). § Remembers where favorite toys are stored. § Focuses on the reader or storyteller for brief periods of time. § Provide child with opportunities to explore different characteristics of an object (a toy with several parts; a face with eyes, ears, nose, and mouth). § Describe and name what child is looking at (e.g., “That’s a big boat!” “There is a horse.”). § Observe child to learn which activities increase or sustain their interest. § Facilitate play and activities between children. § Provide opportunities for child to choose toys to play with and books to read. § Provide opportunities for child to take reasonable and safe risks(stretch for an object beyond reach). § Provide many opportunities for active exploration; discourage watching television or videos. § Recognize child must repeat activities many times whilelearning new skills. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES PERSISTENCE AND ATTENTIVENESS (MASTERY, MOTIVATION, CONCENTRATION) GOAL 4: CHILDREN SUSTAIN ATTENTION TO TASKS EVEN WHEN FACED WITH CHALLENGES AND FRUSTRATION. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Maintain attention and extendfavorite activities by repeatingthem frequently. § Shows interest in favorite activities over and over again. § Persists in the face of difficulty and seeks assistance to completedifficult tasks. § Completes simple projects (three- to-five piece puzzles, can stack blocks on top of one another). § Continues to try a difficult task for a brief period of time (can build a block structure for 3 to 5 minutes). § Insists on some choices (what to wear, completing a project). § Seeks and accepts assistance when encountering a problem. § Listens and participates in story time (turning pages of book or using hand motions, such as claps). § Provide uninterrupted time for child to engage in sustained activities. § Respond to child’s requests for assistance. § Limit environmental distractions to help child sustain attention to activities (turn television off while child plays in room). § Talk with child about their activities using open-endedquestions (e.g., “How did you do that?” “Tell me more.”). § Try new tasks with child and describe them, step-by-step. § Provide and support child’s choices during daily activities (choosing a book, cup, or toy; ordeciding between two shirts to wear). § Help child feel safe and capable of trying something new or taking reasonable risks in a variety of settings. § Direct concerns about child’s frequent unresolved frustration to a medical or developmentalexpert (in partnership with the family). DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES PERSISTENCE AND ATTENTIVENESS (MASTERY, MOTIVATION, CONCENTRATION) GOAL 4: CHILDREN SUSTAIN ATTENTION TO TASKS EVEN WHEN FACED WITH CHALLENGES AND FRUSTRATION. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Use trial and error skills and attention for more complex tasks. § Sustains focus on tasks of interest to them, when few distractions exist. § Remains engaged in an activity for at least 5 to 10 minutes, much of the time. § Completes favorite tasks repeatedly. § Manages tasks with sequences of three to four steps. § Persists in trying to complete a task after previous attempts have failed (completes a puzzle, builds a tower). § Uses at least two different strategies to solve a problem. § Uses self talk to guide action when solving a problem. § Participates in basic routines of daily living (meal time, circle time, or nap routines). § Finds hidden object by searching in more than one place. § Be available and respond when child encounters problems, without being intrusive. § Comment positively on child’s persistence and concentration, when appropriate. § Try child’s suggested interventions when problems are encountered; talk with them about what worked and what did not. § Ask what child would like to try first when solving problems. § Help child focus attention (e.g., “Look at this!” “See the picture?” “Look at the orange cat.”). Change your voice, point to pictures, ask questions, and repeat words. § Help child stay on task, break activity into manageable pieces,give visual and spoken cues, and help them return to tasks. § Modify expectations for persistence to meet individual variations for temperament, age, stage, or ability. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES PERSISTENCE AND ATTENTIVENESS (MASTERY, MOTIVATION, CONCENTRATION) GOAL 4: CHILDREN SUSTAIN ATTENTION TO TASKS EVEN WHEN FACED WITH CHALLENGES AND FRUSTRATION. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months throughKindergarten Maintain interest in activitiesand persist through challengesto complete project. Cancomplete projects incooperation with peers oradults. § Maintains interest in a project or activity until finished, even over multiple days. § Sets goals and follows through on plans, with assistance. § Sustains attention while peers and adults are the focus of attention (pays attention during storytelling or “show and tell”). § Works on a task over a period of time, leaving and returning to it(block structure). § Shifts attention back to the activity at hand after being distracted. § Focuses on projects despite distractions. § Accepts reasonable challenges and continues through frustration. § Cooperates with a peer or adult on a task. § Provide opportunities for child to set and pursue goals. § Plan projects for child to work on over time (planting seeds andnurturing them to watch them grow). § Provide opportunities for child to take on activities and responsibilities that last more than one day (feeding the gerbil this week). § Provide adequate time and support for child to completeincreasingly complex games or tasks. § Adapt expectations for persistence to meet the differing needs of child requiring modification. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES PERSISTENCE AND ATTENTIVENESS (MASTERY, MOTIVATION, CONCENTRATION) GOAL 4: CHILDREN SUSTAIN ATTENTION TO TASKS EVEN WHEN FACED WITH CHALLENGES AND FRUSTRATION. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies First, Second, and Third Grades Solve problems based on previous experience that allows for different strategies to sustain and complete difficult problems. § Adapts in response to a difficult problem. § Develops models for problem solving based on priorexperience. § Tries variations on previous schema for problem solving. § Provide sufficient time for closure and transition between projects. § Recognize child's ability to adapt problem-solving techniques. § Provide many and varied opportunities for child to use their own strategies to pursue goals, with adult assistance. § Provide opportunities for child to work on projects in peer groups. § Provide activities with different levels of complexity and varying time requirements. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 5: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AN EXPANDING ABILITY TO DEVELOP AND CARRY OUT PLANS. Domain 1: Approaches to Learning and Cognitive Development Sub-Domain: Learning Approaches Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten First, Second, and Third Grades DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES PERSISTENCE AND ATTENTIVENESS (MASTERY, MOTIVATION, CONCENTRATION/ATTENTION, CONTROL) GOAL 5: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AN EXPANDING ABILITY TO DEVELOP AND CARRY OUT PLANS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through8 Months Will respond to pleasurable experiences and repeat actions that stimulate pleasure. § Seeks out and acquires desirable objects within reach. § Wiggles, rolls, or crawls to get to a desired visible object. § Shows interest in objects presented to them by kicking, swatting, reaching, cooing, orincreased breathing. § Shows interest in facial expressions and people (laughing, talking, crying). § Provide opportunities for baby to see others’ faces directly. § Respond to baby’s attempt to reach and play with objects. § Provide a variety of safe toys within baby’s reach to help them explore. § Play with baby while they show interest in objects (describe the object and their actions and your own actions). § Talk to baby; sing songs and rhymes. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES PERSISTENCE AND ATTENTIVENESS (MASTERY, MOTIVATION, CONCENTRATION/ATTENTION, CONTROL) GOAL 5: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AN EXPANDING ABILITY TO DEVELOP AND CARRY OUT PLANS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Carry out simple goals to obtain a desired object or activity. § Uses two to three steps to solve a problem. § Uses several trial and error attempts to solve a problem. § Starts to use objects to solve problems. § Support child’s efforts for problem solving and self-sufficiency. § Provide safe experiences for child to explore indoor and outdoor environment. § Place toys and books at child’s level. § Expand on child’s ideas by describing what you see (e.g., “You are rolling the ball - can you roll it to me?”). DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES PERSISTENCE AND ATTENTIVENESS (MASTERY, MOTIVATION, CONCENTRATION/ATTENTION, CONTROL) GOAL 5: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AN EXPANDING ABILITY TO DEVELOP AND CARRY OUT PLANS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Carries out more complex goals using multiple strategiesand pursues a larger range ofactivities with assistance. § Uses many trial and error attempts at problem solving. § Starts to transfer problem-solving strategies across situations. § Seeks adult’s help in getting an object or solving a problem. § Sees the world primarily from their own perspective. § Setup a safe physical environment for child to explore,try, and have successes. § Allow enough time for toddlers to try activities and to explore, including the natural world. § Provide descriptions to give child more information (e.g., “You found a caterpillar! Look how itmoves. Where do you think it is going?”). DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES PERSISTENCE AND ATTENTIVENESS (MASTERY, MOTIVATION, CONCENTRATION/ATTENTION, CONTROL) GOAL 5: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AN EXPANDING ABILITY TO DEVELOP AND CARRY OUT PLANS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Develop schemas for how things work and attempt more complex tasks requiring problem-solving strategies. § Waits briefly for desired object or turn, and knows they will have aturn. § Develops analogical thinking; schemas for what has worked and what to try. § Increases intentional, goal directed activities. § Help child understand sequences (e.g., “What do we do first?”). § Assist child in explaining plans and the outcomes of plans. § Extend child's explanations and stories with open-ended questions. § Encourage child to look at the possible outcomes of plans. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES PERSISTENCE AND ATTENTIVENESS (MASTERY, MOTIVATION, CONCENTRATION/ATTENTION, CONTROL) GOAL 5: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AN EXPANDING ABILITY TO DEVELOP AND CARRY OUT PLANS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Anticipate activities and sustain activity using rules of the game and negotiation. § Knows that rules and negotiation will help them get a turn in agroup of children. § Wants others to follow rules of games. § Anticipates an activity (after class, a friend comes to play andwe will build with blocks and play outside). § Uses narratives to plan, review, and fantasize. § Uses intentional, goal directed activities. § Displays a willingness to try increasingly complex tasks. § Provide many and varies activities and materials wherechild makes choices within boundaries. § Offer environments where child can success independently. § Provide time for child to play with and complete activities of their choosing. § Plan an environment where child can make choices within boundaries. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES PERSISTENCE AND ATTENTIVENESS (MASTERY, MOTIVATION, CONCENTRATION/ATTENTION, CONTROL) GOAL 5: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AN EXPANDING ABILITY TO DEVELOP AND CARRY OUT PLANS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies First, Second, and Third Grades Develop plans for complex tasks and complete them autonomously, seeking adult and peer feedback. § Plans and carries out activities within structured and unstructuredsettings, with adult and peer feedback. § Uses hypothesizing and observation to solve problems and create solutions. § Uses if/then and trial and error thinking to address problemsolving and creating projects or play themes. § Seek feedback from adults and peers. § Uses results of trial and error and reflection to revise plans without undue stress. § Acknowledge individual ways of learning. § Create an environment that allows for a range of experiences that are simple to complex. § Provide opportunities to explore many perspectives, includingcultural perspectives. § Allow child to problem solve for themselves and with peers. Expand or elaborate with child as they need help. § Introduce new props, concepts, and activities to stretch skills. § Assist child in documenting their plans and results (pictures, graphs, stories, notebooks). IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 6: CHILDREN SHOW ABILITY TO CHANGE OR ADAPT THOUGHT PROCESSES, APPLYING PREVIOUSLY LEARNED CONCEPTS AND SKILLS TO NEW SITUATIONS. Domain 1: Approaches to Learning and Cognitive DevelopmentSub-Domain: Learning Approaches Birth through 8 Months 6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten First, Second, and Third Grades DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES REFLECTION AND INTERPRETATION GOAL 6. CHILDREN SHOW ABILITY TO CHANGE OR ADAPT THOUGHT PROCESSES, APPLYING PREVIOUSLY LEARNED CONCEPTS AND SKILLS TO NEW SITUATIONS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Interact with people andobjects that are in theirimmediate range of motion. § Repeats simple motions or activities (mouths objects, bangs things). § Notices objects and people in their environment. § Tracks people and objects by moving head. § Looks where interesting object was seen or heard, after itdisappears. § Notices objects and people who move out of sight and return. § Behaves in a consistent way to elicit desired response (kicks amobile). § Picks out nuances of visual and vocal cues. Turns head or makes noise when baby sees bottle or breast. § Introduce toys, songs, and rhymes to baby. § Facilitate play when baby shows interest in objects. § Incorporate baby’s body into songs and rhymes (lifting legs up and down with marching rhymes or playing “Pat-a-Cake”). § Take baby outside and point out nature; allow baby to see and hear new things. § Talk softly while feeding (e.g., “That milk feels warm on your tummy.” “You were hungry.”). § Incorporate these strategies into every day routines. § Respond to baby’s cues of interest or concern (baby turns head toward the sound of water running; show baby the faucet and turn the water on and then off saying, “on,” “off.”). §    Use a variety of sensory activities to respond to and stimulate the baby’s interest (letbaby feel the softness of a washcloth and the warmth of thewater as you wash the baby’s face). DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES REFLECTION AND INTERPRETATION GOAL 6. CHILDREN SHOW ABILITY TO CHANGE OR ADAPT THOUGHT PROCESSES, APPLYING PREVIOUSLY LEARNED CONCEPTS AND SKILLS TO NEW SITUATIONS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Sustain play with objects. Use trial and error experimentation. § Throws, empties, dumps, gestures. § Recognizes similarities and differences. § Adjusts play that varies slightly (“Peek-a-Boo” with a variety of objects). § Seeks person or object which moves out of sight. § Experiments to see if similar objects will cause a similar response (shakes stuffed animal in the same way as a rattle to hear noise). § Displays recognition and excitement about a toy or gamefrom a previous day. § Applies knowledge to new situations (bangs on a bucket as if it were a drum). § Shows preference for specific objects. § Provide many and varied safe toys and objects for child to play and experiment with. § Rotate toys and objects as child appears to lose interest in them. § Sing songs and recite rhymes to child. § Play music that includes rhythms and rhymes. § Look at and talk about favorite picture books with child while they remain interested. § Recognize child’s need for repetition as they learn new skills,and add complexity to already learned skills. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES REFLECTION AND INTERPRETATION GOAL 6. CHILDREN SHOW ABILITY TO CHANGE OR ADAPT THOUGHT PROCESSES, APPLYING PREVIOUSLY LEARNED CONCEPTS AND SKILLS TO NEW SITUATIONS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Expand on previous learning to evoke new experiences with people and objects in their familiar environment. § Enjoys repetition, stories, scripts, rhymes, and songs. § Is egocentric and has favorite objects that are hard to share. § Substitutes similar objects (stacks boxes like blocks). § Realizes certain behaviors can precede events (If mom puts the pot on the stove, she is fixingsomething to eat, or if she puts her coat on she is leaving.). § Alters behavior based on a past event and builds on it (this didn’t work; I’ll try this instead). § Relates an experience today to one that happened in the past(don’t go near the fence where the big dog lives). § Provide many and varied safe toys and objects for child to play with. In groups, ensure that there are enough duplicates to avoid undue frustration for children. § Allow a favorite object that the child does not have to share (transitional object, blanket, orstuffed animal). § Explain what is going to happen next during transition. § Notice and articulate for child when they express a fear or lookfor a repeat experience. § Read familiar books and sing familiar rhymes and songs. § Read favorite book repeatedly. § Rotate toys as child appears to lose interest. Later, re-introduce the toy to spark renewed interest. § Provide ample time for free play with toys and objects. § Provide experiences with nature and the outdoors that provide ever-changing objects and environments. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES REFLECTION AND INTERPRETATION GOAL 6. CHILDREN SHOW ABILITY TO CHANGE OR ADAPT THOUGHT PROCESSES, APPLYING PREVIOUSLY LEARNED CONCEPTS AND SKILLS TO NEW SITUATIONS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Take more risks by extending previous learning to the exploration of new settings,people, and objects. § Plays beside others and uses common materials. § Begins to plan play themes corporately with others. § Plays with shared meaning and evolving scripts. § Shows interest by asking about new things and people around them. § Seeks out and engages in new experiences and with toys that are unfamiliar. § Tells others about events that happened in the past. § Represents things in the environment with available materials; moving from simple to complex representations. § Thinks out loud and talks themselves through a situation. § Works out problems mentally, or remembers past experience as well as using trial and error. § Provide many and varied safe toys and activities for children to play with alone and in adult- mediated groups. § Talk with child about what they have seen, heard, and done. § Rotate toys as child appears to lose interest. Later, re-introduce toy to spark renewed interest. § Provide opportunities for child to explore nature and the outdoors. § Provide time for and materials to process experiences and information. § Help child remember experiences with photos, mementoes, foundobjects, and written stories. § Ask open-ended questions to encourage reflection (e.g., “What if?” “How else…?”). § Expose child to differences in people and clarify understanding. § Interpret a peer’s intentions or point of view as part of conflict resolution. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES REFLECTION AND INTERPRETATION GOAL 6. CHILDREN SHOW ABILITY TO CHANGE OR ADAPT THOUGHT PROCESSES, APPLYING PREVIOUSLY LEARNED CONCEPTS AND SKILLS TO NEW SITUATIONS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Consider multiple approaches to new situations and tasks. Cooperate with peers and adults to assess new situations and tasks. § Engages in activities and solve problems cooperatively. § Uses a variety of methods to express thoughts and ideas(discussions, art activities). § Demonstrates long-term memory of meaningful events and interesting ideas. § Recognizes others’ feelings and begins to consider them in problem solving. § Applies past learning to new activities and object through trial and error testing out of hypotheses. § Shows interest in and asks many questions about new things and people. § Desires to solve problems on their own. § Prefers to choose activities and are self-sufficient in following through with the choice. § Provide many and varied toys and activities for children to play with in groups and on their own. § Make materials accessible for self-sufficiency, free choice, and self expression. § Provide time for child to engage in meaningful play. § Talk with child about what has been see, heard, or done. § Provide opportunities to recall past experiences in planning new activities and setting goals. § Provide time to process experiences and information. § Ask open-ended questions to encourage reflection. § Help child recognize emotions in their peers and talk throughconflicts. § Provide opportunities to engage group activities (science and cooking projects). § Expose child to different cultural traditions. § Support child with special needs who may need clarification of others’ motives and intentions. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES REFLECTION AND INTERPRETATION GOAL 6. CHILDREN SHOW ABILITY TO CHANGE OR ADAPT THOUGHT PROCESSES, APPLYING PREVIOUSLY LEARNED CONCEPTS AND SKILLS TO NEW SITUATIONS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies First, Second, andThird Grades Use complex mental models of how the world works and increased perspective-taking skills; resulting in strategic problem solving. Increasingly use conventions and rules to interpret new situations. § Can have multiple perspectives, including those of others. § Can consider the past, present, and future and reason about whatmight happen. § Can imagine multiple solutions. § Uses multiple sources of information for further understanding. § Can consider more than one element of something at the same time. § Can generalize learning and use imagination in new settings andwith new activities (effective problem solving). § Self-sufficient in problem solving though peer and adult help is often needed. § Generalizes skills used in previous situations to solve newproblems. § Provide many opportunities for child to explore more complex subjects and processes. § Allow children to work in groups to solve problems. § Allow child to come up with own solutions and to consider multiple solutions. § Question child to help them see multiple solutions and ask child to talk about their thought process. § Acknowledge child's imagination and abilities. § Help child resolve conflicts with peers on their own. § Provide opportunities for child to explore different cultures and new activities. § Provide opportunities for hands- on learning of different processes (building, cooking, art, music,etc.). IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 7: MEDIATED BY INDIVIDUAL TEMPERAMENT, CHILDREN LEARN TO UNDERSTAND AND APPRECIATE INDIVIDUAL STYLE IN APPROACHING AND INTERACTING WITH THE WORLD. Domain 1: Approaches to Learning and Cognitive DevelopmentSub-Domain: Learning Approaches Birth through 8 Months 6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten First, Second, and Third Grades DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES REFLECTION AND INTERPRETATION GOAL 7. MEDIATED BY INDIVIDUAL TEMPERAMENT, CHILDREN LEARN TO UNDERSTAND AND APPRECIATE INDIVIDUAL STYLE IN APPROACHING AND INTERACTING WITH THE WORLD. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Respond to and adapt to trusted people in their environment. § Seeks responses from others. § Depending on temperament; has more regulated sleeping, feeding, and waking cycles? § Seeks and displays comfort with family members. § Expresses temperamental indicators of regularity, intensity, persistence, sensitivity,adaptability, activity level, approaches to newness, mood,and distractibility. § Begins to develop coping skills to help self regulate. § Recognize and respond to individual temperaments and needs among children. § Be responsive and nurturing to child’s needs rather than follow a strict schedule. § Observe and respond to child’s cues. § Support child and mediate for them in stressful situations. § Strive to match care giving strategies with the needs of an individual child. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES REFLECTION AND INTERPRETATION GOAL 7. MEDIATED BY INDIVIDUAL TEMPERAMENT, CHILDREN LEARN TO UNDERSTAND AND APPRECIATE INDIVIDUAL STYLE IN APPROACHING AND INTERACTING WITH THE WORLD. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Explore familiar people, objects, and situations with varying levels of adult influence and assistance. § Responds to modeling (can copy hand-clapping). § Demonstrates responses to interactions; is engaged in trustingrelationships. § Visually and vocally checks in with caregiver; exhibits social referencing. § Uses self-calming strategies and seeks trusted adult for coping. § May test limits of safety-seeking information by looking toward caregiver. § Provide a variety of sensory experiences with a reassuring tone. § Provide physical and emotional safety for child. § Support child by mediating stressful situations through warmth and nurturing as child ventures further from the caregiver. § Model consistent and loving care giving responses to support the relationship. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES REFLECTION AND INTERPRETATION GOAL 7. MEDIATED BY INDIVIDUAL TEMPERAMENT, CHILDREN LEARN TO UNDERSTAND AND APPRECIATE INDIVIDUAL STYLE IN APPROACHING AND INTERACTING WITH THE WORLD. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Begin to take some risks exploring familiar people, objects, and situations with differing needs for adult assistance. Are more capable of coping with stressful situations. § Demonstrates open, uninhibited self-expression. § Develops a relaxed rhythm with caregivers in daily routines. § Responds to externally-driven interactions, relationships, and inhibitions. § Seeks information from others through observation andrelationships. § Begins to regulate strong emotional expression (tantrums, acting impulsively). § Demonstrates some coping skills in the face of adversity. § Start to recognize child's learning, coping, and reactive styles. § Help child to identify (label) their emotions and those of others(emotional scaffolding). § Model appropriate behaviors and responses for child. § Model language, labels, feelings, thoughts, and experiences forchild. § Support child's learning to adapt by mediating stressful situations. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES REFLECTION AND INTERPRETATION GOAL 7. MEDIATED BY INDIVIDUAL TEMPERAMENT, CHILDREN LEARN TO UNDERSTAND AND APPRECIATE INDIVIDUAL STYLE IN APPROACHING AND INTERACTING WITH THE WORLD. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Display different levels of initiative and confidence in exploring a wider variety of social and physical settings. Can recognize emotional states in themselves and others and problem solve around emotional issues, with adult assistance. § Chooses personal strategies to control emotional responses. § Seeks shared experiences. § Begins to allow peers to impact how they see themselves. § Explains and problem-solves issues of emotion (label emotionsof self and others). § Can observe and respond to a friend or family members’ ideas, likes, or dislikes. § Recognize child’s increasing range of complexity in emotional expressions and processing. § Support child's learning to adapt by mediating stressful situations for them. § Model language, labels, feelings, thoughts, and experiences for child. § Continue to respond to child’s individual temperament traits tosupport interactions and transitions. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES REFLECTION AND INTERPRETATION GOAL 7. MEDIATED BY INDIVIDUAL TEMPERAMENT, CHILDREN LEARN TO UNDERSTAND AND APPRECIATE INDIVIDUAL STYLE IN APPROACHING AND INTERACTING WITH THE WORLD. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Can recognize and identify a wider variety of emotions. They can better interpret complex emotional states and recover more easily from strong emotions, with adult assistance. § Begin to understand there is a variety of expressions and reactions to shared experiences (de-centering). § Recover from strong emotions. § Recognize child's increasing level of complexity in emotional expressions and processing. § Support child by mediating stressful situations and prompting child to reflect upon and interprettheir distress. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: LEARNING APPROACHES REFLECTION AND INTERPRETATION GOAL 7. MEDIATED BY INDIVIDUAL TEMPERAMENT, CHILDREN LEARN TO UNDERSTAND AND APPRECIATE INDIVIDUAL STYLE IN APPROACHING AND INTERACTING WITH THE WORLD. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies First, Second, andThird Grades Can better take the perspective of others and can support others appropriately. Negotiate within a group process that involves diverse ideas. § Act on behalf of others action related to perspective taking. § Are competent negotiators in a group process that involvesdiverse ideas. § Show the ability to choose compatible playmates. § Allow child to work out conflicts and problems. Provide support, as needed, and reflection and debriefing to expand understanding. § Provide alternative perspectives and options for future problem solving. § Provide reassurance and safety for child in stressful situations. § Be responsive to the individual child’s cares and needs. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 8: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS OF CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS. Domain 1: Approaches to Learning and Cognitive Development Sub-Domain: Cognition and Cognitive Processes Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten First, Second, and Third Grades DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REASONING AND LOGIC GOAL 8: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS OF CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Increasingly aware of self and primary caregivers. § Looks for or orients toward a dropped object or sound. § Uses sounds, gestures, and movements to impact theenvironment and interactions. § Acts on an object to make a pleasing sight, sound, or motion (kicks or swats mobile, continues to bat object to repeat sound). § Repeats actions many times to cause the desired effect. § Sustains brief interactions, with caregiver support. § When mobile, seeks caregiver for support. § Provide a safe and stimulating environment for baby to explore. § Provide opportunities for baby to see objects and people move outof sight and return. § Provide baby with consistent responses, environments, and routines. § Play turn-taking games with baby (Peek-a-Boo). § Provide opportunities for baby to experience cause and effect. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REASONING AND LOGIC GOAL 8: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS OF CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Use goal-oriented exploration. Actively explore self, others, and objects; recognize the effect of actions on the environment. § Uses variety of tools (containers, switches, doors). § Manipulates object to experiment with cause and effect. § Uses motor skills to experiment with cause and effect. § Uses two- to three-step sequencing. § Experiments with effects of own actions on objects and people. § Looks to others for understanding and response (social referencingwith caregivers). § Begins to express an understanding of cause and effect. § Understands “no,” but may not inhibit actions. § Begins to understand that meaning and language are linked to actions. § Does not understand impact of actions on others (biting, pushing). § Demonstrate and explain the relationships between things (e.g., “Your toy is on the floor. You can’t reach it.”). § Model opportunities for the child to experience the connectionbetween action and language. Understand that thechild’s comprehension of combining action and language isnot well-formed. § Explain what is happening while interacting with child. § Use consistent routines so child learns to predict (after a nap, it’ssnack time). § Describe what is happening/seen when child looks to caregiver for information. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REASONING AND LOGIC GOAL 8: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS OF CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Generalize understanding of cause and effect to new people, objects, and settings expanding exploration. § Observes others’ actions to see the effect they have on objects and people. § Experiments with the effect of own actions on objects and people. § Learns to anticipate an adult’s response to an action. § Understands “no,” but can control actions at times. § Predominately uses “Why?” to ask questions even though the child may actually be asking “Who?” “What?” “Where?” “How?” or “When?” § Likes push and pull toys, and toys with wheels that they can move. § Uses fill/dump, build up/knock down, and push/pull strategies. § Offer expressions of surprise, delight, and concern in addition to words that describe reactions to cause and effect situations. § Provide explicit explanations for cause and effect (e.g., when childtouches something hot, you say, “No touch - HOT!”). § Play with and manipulate different materials so child can see changes. § Provide opportunities for child to experiment with objects to seeoutcomes (turning lights on and off). § Describe how objects change when acted on (batter turns to cake, water turns to ice). § Provide push and pull toys, and outdoor experiences with movabletoys (wagons, large boxes). § Provide outdoor experiences with sand, water, and moveable toys. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REASONING AND LOGIC GOAL 8: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS OF CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Are aware of and interested in simple causal relationships. Uses magical thinking. § Identifies objects that influence or affect other objects (food coloring makes the water blue). § Asks “why” questions to show effort at understanding causation (if I do this, why does that happen?). § Explains the effects that simple actions may have on objects (it will be dark when you turn off the light). § Recognizes which element of an object causes the effect in simplerelationships (the beads inside the box make the noise). § Begins to use “What?” “Who?” “When?” and “Where?” questions. § Provide opportunities for child to play without adult guidance; discovering causal relationships. § Engage child in activities that demonstrate cause and effect (cooking projects, planting seedsand watching them grow). § Demonstrate, explain, and provide opportunities for child to explore cause and effect. § Provide opportunities for child to engage in efforts to address the effects of local issues (pollution,littering). § Help child make connections about cause (actions) and effect when resolving social conflicts. § Understand that social complexity can exceed child’s capacity to problem solve. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REASONING AND LOGIC GOAL 8: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS OF CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Building on past experiences, express curiosity about cause and effect with people and objects and experiment to elaborate their understanding. § Structure experiments to see how changes in one factor influence changes in the others (plant seeds and put one in sunlight and one in a dark room), with assistance. § Attempt to explain how things might change given a change incircumstances (when it’s cloudy, it might rain). § Explain reasons why simple events occurred (e.g., “Carlos isn’t here today because he got sick yesterday.”). § Propose experiments to see what will happen. § Provide opportunities for child to engage in case-effect activities (freeze water with objects in it; observe how long it takes to melt). § Provide child with a variety of materials to create cause andeffect experiments (explore together the steps required tocook a meal). § Pose “what if?” questions to child. § Understand that social complexity can exceed child’s capacity to problem solve. § Demonstrate, explain, and engage child in taking steps to cause and outcome (explore together the steps required to cook a meal). DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REASONING AND LOGIC GOAL 8: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS OF CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies First, Second, and Third Grades Are more confident in theirnotion about causalrelationships, which becomemore reality based andelaborated through socialconventions and logic. § Uses rule-based testing of social situations (telling on peers, “That’s not fair!” Wanting rules for security and safety.). § Becomes critical to scientific thinking and underlies conjecture,hypothesizing, and guessing. § Uses if/then hypotheses and explanations. § Use scaffolding, thinking by asking questions, or posing hypotheses. § Clarify problem so that child can solve (e.g., “What happens next?”). § Provide opportunities for multistep experiments, both indoors and outside. § Integrate causality with scientific thinking. § Provide a variety of open-ended materials for experimentation. § Help develop lists and steps for complex activities (cooking, event planning, and experiments). IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 9: CHILDREN USE PRIOR RELATIONSHIPS, EXPERIENCES, AND KNOWLEDGE TO EXPAND UNDERSTANDING. Domain 1: Approaches to Learning and Cognitive Development Sub-Domain: Cognition and Cognitive Processes Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten First, Second, and Third Grades DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES CONCEPT FORMATION/MEMORY GOAL 9: CHILDREN USE PRIOR RELATIONSHIPS, EXPERIENCES, AND KNOWLEDGE TO EXPAND UNDERSTANDING. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Begin to anticipate routines through relationships with people and objects. § Tracks people and objects by moving head as an adult or object moves. § Turns to familiar adult’s voice. § Prefers familiar adults to strangers. § Anticipates familiar events or routines (feel of changing pad means a diaper change, cradlednear breast means feeding). § Smiles and wiggles to engage and respond to family members. § Memory is short term and based in emotional relationships andsensory experience. § Behaves in consistent ways to elicit a response (kicks a mobile). § Shows surprise and delight by games such as Peek-a-Boo,holding and examining objects, or pushing and pulling objects. § In child care settings, provide a primary attachment adult for each child. § Interact with child in consistent and predictable ways. § Provide child with toys and objects that respond to child’s actions (makes a sound when shaken, moves or changes when touched). § Talk to child about what is happening. § Consistently respond with words and/or touches when child cries. § Provide a variety of objects that address all the senses, for child toexplore (materials of various textures, odors, tastes, etc.). § Initiate simple games such as Peek-a-Boo, or moving objects back and forth with each other. § Respond to child’s initiation for interaction with people andobjects. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES CONCEPT FORMATION/MEMORY GOAL 9: CHILDREN USE PRIOR RELATIONSHIPS, EXPERIENCES, AND KNOWLEDGE TO EXPAND UNDERSTANDING. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Build on experiences and emotions to expand memory through routines and relationships. § Shows attachment to primary caregivers/parents through preference, or clinging to parents and familiar people. § Object memory is short term and based on what is visible andaccessible. § Experiments to see if similar objects cause similar responses (shakes stuffed animal in the same way as a rattle to hear noise). § Displays recognition and excitement about games or toys from the previous day. § Applies knowledge to new situations (bangs on bucket as if it were a drum). § Recognizes differences between familiar people and strangers. § Realizes that objects exist when they are not seen — for a short time. § Anticipates the return of a face when playing Peek-a-Boo and thetrajectory of a moving object. § Looks for a hidden object after seeing it hidden/moved in two-to- three places (object permanence). § Looks for a familiar person, toy, or pet, when asked. § Uses transitional object to support transitions and separations (favorite toy or blanket). § Greets people with “Hi.” § Waves bye-bye when leaving. § Support closeness with caregiver/parent with hugs and attention. § Provide opportunities for child to try same action on different objects (shake a rattle, shake astuffed animal, shake a ball). § Comment when child applies knowledge to new situations using descriptive language. § Sing songs with sequences, stories, and repetitive phrases. § Watch for activities that occur regularly (when the food arrives for lunch). § Display photos of child in familiar situations, doing familiar activities, and with family members. Pointout aspects of the pictures. § Create rituals for arrival time for the child, parent, and staff. § Create “good-bye” rituals for the child, parent, and staff to facilitateseparation issues at departure time. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES CONCEPT FORMATION/MEMORY GOAL 9: CHILDREN USE PRIOR RELATIONSHIPS, EXPERIENCES, AND KNOWLEDGE TO EXPAND UNDERSTANDING. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Begin to use prior relationshipsand experiences to expandunderstanding and problemsolving. § Generalizes actions to similar objects (stacks boxes like blocks). § Realizes that behaviors can precede events (if mom puts a poton the stove, she is going to cook something to eat; when mom putson her coat, she is leaving). § Anticipates separation and reunion. § Alters behavior based on a past event and builds on it (I did thisand it didn’t work, so I will do this instead.). § Relates an experience today to one that happened in the past (hand washing prior to mealtime). § Looks in several places for a desired object, or when asked tofind an object (e.g., “Go see if your other shoe is under yourbed.”). § Enjoys simple hide-and-seek games. § Begins to understand that a parent goes away to work, but willcome home. § May over generalize terms such as hot/cold/sweet/sour/big/old based on limited experiences. § Talks to self, saying words repetitively (referred to as rehearsal; where child tries outputting thoughts into words). § Think out loud and talk about ideas with child using descriptive language (e.g., “You remembered where the puzzle piece fits.”). § Invite child to share thoughts and ideas about the world aroundhim/her. § Provide materials that are similar but produce different results (crayons, markers, paint). § Narrate child’s play by describing what you see and hear. § Demonstrate, explain, and provide opportunities for child to think about and avoid negative or problem situations. § Play safe, simple, hiding and finding games. § Incorporate storytelling into every day routines (at naptime tell child individual stories about their morning, what they did, what happened, etc.). § Offer a window where child can watch family members arrive anddepart. § Help child understand the passing of time by describing a sequence of events (we get up from our nap, have a snack, play on the playground, then mommy comes to get you.). § Offer sensory experiences paired with descriptive vocabulary (e.g.,“The snow is cold.” “The rain is cool.” “The soup is warm.” “Thebook is big.” “The door is tall.” “Your dad is tall.”). DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES CONCEPT FORMATION/MEMORY GOAL 9: CHILDREN USE PRIOR RELATIONSHIPS, EXPERIENCES, AND KNOWLEDGE TO EXPAND UNDERSTANDING. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Connect current behavior andpast experience to newsituations, relationships, andproblem solving. § Explains events that happened in the past. § Represents things in environment with available materials; movingfrom simple to complex representations (recreate pictureof a house, build road with blocks, or make a tree with modelingclay). § Thinks out loud and talks themselves through a situation. § Works out problems using information from prior experiencesrather than through trial and error. § Tells a story or recounts an event from photographs of self and others (e.g., “We made a big tent with boxes and blankets.”). § Points to objects that are out of place. § Points out objects in complex pictures and puzzles. § Asks or tells when a parent goes away to work and will they come home. § Completes a sequence of three to six pictures or pieces of a sequence puzzle. § Sings and chants along with repetitive lines in songs, poems,and stories. § Uses words for yesterday, today, and tomorrow even though the timing may be incorrect. § Tells others about their acquaintances and experiences without considering the otherperson’s lack of knowledge with the topic or person § Engage child about what he/she has seen, heard, or done. § Provide child with time to respond in conversation where they wantto offer experiences and information. § Help child remember experiences using photographs, mementos, and re-told stories. § Ask open-ended questions that encourage reflection (e.g., “Whatif...?” “How else could you do this?”). § Provide play interactions with other children and props that elicit previous experiences. § Use photos to prompt routines such as hand washing, brushingteeth, putting away toys. § Sing songs and tell/read stories with repeating lines or sequences of activities. § Play “remember when” games, family stories. § Play name word games and sing name songs to help children know one another’s names. § Rotate toys and activities based on input from children and their comments about pastexperiences. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES CONCEPT FORMATION/MEMORY GOAL 9: CHILDREN USE PRIOR RELATIONSHIPS, EXPERIENCES, AND KNOWLEDGE TO EXPAND UNDERSTANDING. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Mediate current behavior, exploration, and problem solving by remembering past experiences. § Uses a variety of methods to express thoughts and ideas (discussion, art activities). § Demonstrates memory of meaningful events and interesting ideas using explanations andcreative expression. § Describes or acts out a memory of a situation or action. § Seeks information for further understanding. § Uses multiple sources of information to complete projects and acquire new information, with assistance. § Plans activities and sets goals based on past experience. § Demonstrates beginning understanding of what others are thinking, their intentions, or motivations. § Collects and categorizes objects from field trips or travels (rocks,shells, photos). § Tells stories about the past or future, and elaborates on stories told by others. § Provide opportunities for child to express thoughts through writing, speaking, or creative arts. § Provide opportunities for child to recall past experiences in planning new activities and settingnew goals. § Provide opportunities for child to share the lessons learned from his/her experiences (story time). § Support children who may have difficulty understanding others’ motives and intentions with adult-mediated negotiations and conflict resolution strategies. § Help child to understand children’s differing actions, and what they might represent or mean. § Provide display space for collected items and encourage dictated labels or stories toexplain significance. § Ask about a certain trip or event, what happened, what came first, and what might happen next § Maintain portfolios of child’s work so they can see past and present examples of theirwork. Encourage child to choose items to put in their portfolios. § Encourage child to hypothesize and carry out experiments and document results (water, sand, natural environmental relationships). DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES CONCEPT FORMATION/MEMORY GOAL 9: CHILDREN USE PRIOR RELATIONSHIPS, EXPERIENCES, AND KNOWLEDGE TO EXPAND UNDERSTANDING. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies First, Second, and Third Grades Interpret past behavior through conventions and current experience. § Usually considers what others are thinking, their intentions, or motivations. § Can recall at will. § Plans activities and sets goals based on past experience. § Uses concepts of time, including functional vocabulary. § Sequences events and objects, using both forward and backward sequencing. § Use conventional methods of measuring time to aid memory. § Uses a wide vocabulary to facilitate the encoding/retrieving of memory. § Chooses objects/documents for a journal or portfolio of special events or art work. § Uses “What happened when?” and “What if” thinking to solve problems and gain information. § Support child's autonomous exploration. § Provide many and varied opportunities to use conceptsabout time, including vocabulary. § Involve child in planning experiments and selecting themes and field trips. § Encourage child to draw on past experience to set goals and find solutions to problems. § Encourage child to work with groups and to play games where rules, negotiation, and conflict resolution demand problem solving. § Introduce familiar and unfamiliar cultural experiences and customs. § Read to child using books with increasing complexity. § Encourage journals, photos, drawings, and collections to document travels or interests. § Provide access to fiction and nonfiction books and resources for concept development and information searches. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 10: CHILDREN SHOW EMERGING ABILITY TO IMITATE BEHAVIORS THAT THEY HAVE OBSERVED. Domain 1: Approaches to Learning and Cognitive Development Sub-Domain: Cognition and Cognitive Processes Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten First, Second, and Third Grades DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES IMITATION GOAL 10: CHILDREN SHOW EMERGING ABILITY TO IMITATE BEHAVIORS THAT THEY HAVE OBSERVED. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Initiate, sustain, and replicate brief interactions and expressions. § Looks at objects and faces. § Responds to adult facial expressions with same expression (sticking out tongue,pursing lips). § Mimics sounds. § Stares, smiles at, or shows concern or puzzlement to a caregiver. § Wiggles, kicks, increases rate of breathing in response to observation. § Babbles in tandem with caregiver‘s sounds. § Provide time, action, and physical support. § Initiate and respond in reciprocal interactions. § Describe what the child is doing to the child. § Exaggerate facial expressions. § Hold facial expressions for a sustained time as you engage the baby. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES IMITATION GOAL 10: CHILDREN SHOW EMERGING ABILITY TO IMITATE BEHAVIORS THAT THEY HAVE OBSERVED. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Initiate, sustain, and replicate interactions and expressions. § Waves bye-bye. § Plays imitation games (clapping and marching, jumping to music). § Prefers objects frequently used by caregiver (keys, cell phone). § Offers objects to others (though they may quickly take the objectback). § Imitates actions from daily routines of the family or early childhood program (rocks a baby doll, puts on a hat, feed the caregiver). § Provide scripts and cues, especially during routines. § Provide time, action, and physical support. § Play games with imitation and action (e.g., “Hop like a …”). § Plan times for music and activities (marching, clapping, drumming). § Play and repeat simple games (Hide and Seek, Chase). § Provide safe common objects for play (bowl and spoon, baby dolls, and blankets). DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES IMITATION GOAL 10: CHILDREN SHOW EMERGING ABILITY TO IMITATE BEHAVIORS THAT THEY HAVE OBSERVED. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Sustain and replicate interactions and expressions with more sequences and complexity. Begin foundational symbolic play. § Imitates a single action from a finger play or dance movement. § Demonstrates a sequence of behavior after observing anotherchild or adult. § Imitates parent or caregiver’s familiar behavior or gestures (pulls clothes from dryer, puts hands on hips, strikes a familiar pose). § Uses imitation, which leads to functional play (pouring water in the bathtub or pretending tohammer nails in the sandbox). § Provide tools, props, and opportunities for imitative tasks and behavior. § Use actions, songs, finger plays (use a slow pace). § Provide everyday tasks for toddlers to do (set the table, put blocks in a tub for cleanup). § Support play with open ended materials (cups, measuring spoons, pitchers, dolls). DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES IMITATION GOAL 10: CHILDREN SHOW EMERGING ABILITY TO IMITATE BEHAVIORS THAT THEY HAVE OBSERVED. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Use imitation as a foundation for symbolic play and sequencing. § Imitates sequences of action (songs with gestures, movement games). § Uses phrases or plays out plots from favorite books or movies. § Sings and gestures to songs with both actions and words (Wheels on the Bus, folk songs with gestures). § Encourage child to participate in everyday tasks (stirring, pouring, and wiping up). § Use longer action songs with sequences of motions (use a slow pace as children first learn to doboth words and actions. § Use picture cards to help child see actions they can imitate. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES IMITATION GOAL 10: CHILDREN SHOW EMERGING ABILITY TO IMITATE BEHAVIORS THAT THEY HAVE OBSERVED. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months throughKindergarten Use fantasy and pretend playmore elaborately and use moreperspective taking andexperimentation with culturalroles and competencies incooperation with others. § Engages extensively in pretend role play with peers and alone with a variety of objects. § Narrates their play and speaks for dolls and other imagined people, taking on several roles inplay. § Likes games or songs with imitation (“Simon Says”). § Provide many and varied experiences for concerts, art, and theatre shows. § Offer a wide variety of props, resources, and tools for making music, art, and drama. § Provide many and varied pretend play materials, props, and dress- up clothes). § Provide opportunities to see and imitate different kinds of work. § Provide real and pretend activities involving work that adults do (cooking, cleaning, raking leaves). DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES IMITATION GOAL 10: CHILDREN SHOW EMERGING ABILITY TO IMITATE BEHAVIORS THAT THEY HAVE OBSERVED. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies First, Second, and Third Grades Imitate, explain, and add to behaviors they observe. § Creates word play and rhymes. § Elicits adults’ explanations of what they are doing (as authorities) rather than simplyimitating them. § Imagines themselves in different roles and expands the roles beyond what they have directly observed. § Expose child to many and varied adult models and roles (stories, visitors, field trips). § Provide opportunities for child to re-enact historical events or retell stories. § Provide engaging literature rich with word play, rhymes, and contradictions. § Provide many and varied activities that draw on child'simagination (musical experience, literature, science, nature). IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 11: CHILDREN FIND MULTIPLE SOLUTIONS TO QUESTIONS, TASKS, PROBLEMS, AND CHALLENGES, INCLUDING TRIAL AND ERROR. Domain 1: Approaches to Learning and Cognitive DevelopmentSub-Domain: Cognition and Cognitive Processes Birth through 8 Months 6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten First, Second, and Third Grades DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REASONING AND LOGIC/ PROBLEM SOLVING GOAL 11: CHILDREN FIND MULTIPLE SOLUTIONS TO QUESTIONS, TASKS, PROBLEMS, AND CHALLENGES, INCLUDING TRIAL AND ERROR. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through8 Months Use all senses to explore environment and relationships. § Reaches for a toy or object that has rolled away. § Seeks assistance from caregiver using vocalizations, facialexpressions, or gestures. § Experiments with different ways of sucking (bottle vs. breast vs. thumb). § Responds to caregiver’s voice when upset. § Accepts or resists new tastes/textures. § Respond to child’s signals for assistance. § Provide different textures and touch to engage child. § Provide consistency during routines (changing, feeding, and napping). § Offer many opportunities for play around looking, hearing, tasting,touching, and smelling. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REASONING AND LOGIC/ PROBLEM SOLVING GOAL 11: CHILDREN FIND MULTIPLE SOLUTIONS TO QUESTIONS, TASKS, PROBLEMS, AND CHALLENGES, INCLUDING TRIAL AND ERROR. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Explore familiar people, objects, and settings to observe outcomes. Use goal- oriented exploration. § Uses active exploration and trial and error to figure out how things work. § Uses objects as a means to an end (uses a bucket to transport blocks from one room to another,uses a spoon to reach for food). § With improving concentration, spends a longer time exploring objects. § Provide opportunities for child to work out problems, with and without assistance. § Demonstrate, explain, and engage child in trying things in different ways (stack blocks ofdifferent shapes and sizes trying different combinations; squareblocks on the bottom, then round blocks on the bottom). § Positively acknowledge when child tries new things. § Provide age-appropriate toys that have many uses. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REASONING AND LOGIC/ PROBLEM SOLVING GOAL 11: CHILDREN FIND MULTIPLE SOLUTIONS TO QUESTIONS, TASKS, PROBLEMS, AND CHALLENGES, INCLUDING TRIAL AND ERROR. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Try new things with familiar people, objects, and settings to see what the consequences will be. § Tries several methods to solve a problem before asking for assistance. § Communicates to request assistance. § Uses solutions that are often not reality based. § Uses solutions that tend to reflect the child’s own personalexperience and perspective. § Becomes more persistent in trying to solve tasks on their own. § May become frustrated when outcomes are different thanexpected. § Talk to the child or otherwise demonstrate possible solutions while problem solving. § Offer play that has many solutions (building with blocks, dressing a baby doll, putting itemsin a play grocery cart). § Sequentially work through a problem with the child to find a solution. § Provide activities and toys that have multiple uses (blocks, water play, outdoor digging). § Provide opportunities for child to work out problems, with and without assistance. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REASONING AND LOGIC/ PROBLEM SOLVING GOAL 11: CHILDREN FIND MULTIPLE SOLUTIONS TO QUESTIONS, TASKS, PROBLEMS, AND CHALLENGES, INCLUDING TRIAL AND ERROR. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Are increasingly confident in interacting in a variety of social and physical settings as they try new things. Use emerging perspective-taking experiments. § Explores various ways to solve a problem and select one option. § Seeks assistance from another child or adult to solve problems. § Modifies actions based on new information and experiences (change block structure when the tower continues to fall). § Uses magical thinking to influence solutions to problems (child thinks inanimate objectshave intentions). § Uses emerging perspective taking to think of multiple situations for problem solving. § Solves an increasing number of problems within everyday activities. § Be available to assist child with challenges, questions, and tasks to solve. § Demonstrate several alternatives to solving a problem. § Guide child through the problem- solving process (e.g., “The wagon is struck. What can we do?”). § Apply the problem-solving process to social problems at the child’s level (e.g., “Enrique andyou both want to paint at the easel. What needs to happen foryou to share the easel and paint together?”). DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REASONING AND LOGIC/ PROBLEM SOLVING GOAL 11: CHILDREN FIND MULTIPLE SOLUTIONS TO QUESTIONS, TASKS, PROBLEMS, AND CHALLENGES, INCLUDING TRIAL AND ERROR. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months throughKindergarten Cooperate in groups and experiment with new situations and environments. Bring past experience to bear when approaching problems and challenges. § Works in a group to find a solution; building on the group’s problem-solving strategies. § Predicts when something might be a problem or challenge (puzzle may be hard to do). § Identifies some strategies to solve a problem or begin a complex task. § Explains part, or all, of the problem when asking for help. § Tries several strategies to solve a problem. Child might want help from peer or adult. § Solves increasingly complex problems and an increasednumber of problems. § Pose solvable problems to child and provide opportunities for child to find solutions. § Present the pros and cons of different solutions; encouraging child to help identify the bestsolution. § Provide opportunities for child to work with other children and adults to find solutions to the problems. § Offer vocabulary to help child ask questions and pose solutions. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REASONING AND LOGIC/ PROBLEM SOLVING GOAL 11: CHILDREN FIND MULTIPLE SOLUTIONS TO QUESTIONS, TASKS, PROBLEMS, AND CHALLENGES, INCLUDING TRIAL AND ERROR. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies First, Second, andThird Grades Use a variety of problem- solving strategies to interact with people and objects across settings and under a variety of circumstances. § Increases ability to identify problems independently and to generate multiple solutions. § Uses and develops more strategies. § Works with and negotiates with peers independently. § Uses more reality-based problem solving. § Enjoys figuring out manageable problems. § Enjoys ”fixing things” and feelings of competence. § Acknowledge child’s approaches to problem solving, and reinforce strategic and positive approaches. § Be available. Intervene in the process only when a child asks for help, shows undue frustration,or nears the point of giving up. § Provide opportunities for child to work with other children and adults to find solutions to the problems. § Make resources available, including books and technology. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 12: CHILDREN EXPAND ABILITIES FOR CONJECTURE, HYPOTHESIZING, AND GUESSING. Domain 1: Approaches to Learning and Cognitive Development Sub-Domain: Cognition and Cognitive Processes Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten First, Second, and Third Grades DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REASONING AND LOGIC/ PROBLEM SOLVING GOAL 12: CHILDREN EXPAND ABILITIES FOR CONJECTURE, HYPOTHESIZING, AND GUESSING. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Use all senses to explore environment and relationships. § Displays curiosity using senses (vision, hearing, taste, touch, smell). § Looks for or orients toward sights and sounds. § Uses fingers at first for self soothing. § Uses sounds, gestures, and movements to impact theenvironment and interactions. § Uses repetitive actions to cause desired effect (kicks or swats mobile, continues to bat at object to repeat sound). § Looks at or listens to novel objects. § Respond to child’s signals for assistance. § Provide a variety of materials with sensory character to engage achild (a mobile, an infant gym, or rattles). § Use routines to develop an individual rapport with each child to best read and respond to their individual cues. § Both initiate play and follow the child’s lead when playing together. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REASONING AND LOGIC/ PROBLEM SOLVING GOAL 12: CHILDREN EXPAND ABILITIES FOR CONJECTURE, HYPOTHESIZING, AND GUESSING. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Actively explore and act on familiar people, objects, and settings to achieve familiar and pleasant outcomes. § Engages in goal-directed behavior and shows persistence in getting a desired object. § Bases problem solving in exploration and trial and error with objects. § Begins to observe other’s actions in relationship to their own. § Uses a variety of strategies to explore unfamiliar objects. § May resist unfamiliar foods. § Use the child’s developing mobility to set up exploration activities. § Recognize child’s attempts at autonomy and curiosity, and appropriately support thoseattempts. § Be aware of safety and set up exploration in a safe environment where child can explore without adult interference. § Provide toys and objects for stacking, banging, and building. § Provide multi-sensory objects (soft, hard, rough, smooth, fuzzy, loud, soft). § Offer unfamiliar foods accompanied by the opportunityto smell, touch, and taste. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REASONING AND LOGIC/ PROBLEM SOLVING GOAL 12: CHILDREN EXPAND ABILITIES FOR CONJECTURE, HYPOTHESIZING, AND GUESSING. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Initiates action, lengthens exploration, and responds to familiar people, objects, and settings. § Experiments with effect of own actions on objects and people. § Observes others’ actions to see the effect they have on objectsand people. § Needs adult help or explanation for problem (may use social referencing). § Uses repetition in practicing behaviors and seeing consequences. § Begins to see how one thing leads to another. § Looks longer at surprising or irrational events than at a predictable event. May want thesurprise to occur again, or to trigger the novel experience. § Describe cause and effect outcomes (e.g., “Look, you pulled the string and the toy came to you!). § Provide opportunities for child to experiment with objects to seeoutcomes. § Describe and anticipate the outcome of their actions. § Enrich the environment in response to the child’s interest. § Refrain from intervening if a child is practicing a skill until the child asks for help or shows frustration. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REASONING AND LOGIC/ PROBLEM SOLVING GOAL 12: CHILDREN EXPAND ABILITIES FOR CONJECTURE, HYPOTHESIZING, AND GUESSING. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Testing ideas about how things work in a variety of social and physical settings. § Asks questions to get more information about why something happens. § Explains the effects that simple actions have and their outcomes. § Recognizes which object or element of an object causes the effect in simple relationships. § Answers “what next” questions. § Uses self talk when solving a difficult problem. § Acquires the ability to hold more than one attribute in mind. § Becomes aware that other people can have different ideas or thoughts from their own. § Can categorize objects into groups. § Begins to make, recognize, and extend patterns. § Changes from magical thinking to understanding causation andplanned actions. § Uses “why” most often to ask questions as they hypothesize. § Begins to “Who,” “What,” “Where,” and “When” to gaininformation to form hypothesis. § Use child-centered play, for the child to discover and practice cause and effect, where the adult direction is limited. § Support cause and effect activities by asking extendingquestions (e.g., “What do you think will happen next?”), oroffering another prop. § Help child know when to use “wh” questions; “Why,” “Who,” “What,” “Where,” and “When”. § Enrich the environment with enough open-ended materials and time for exploration (blocks,water table, outdoors sand, digging tools). DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REASONING AND LOGIC/ PROBLEM SOLVING GOAL 12: CHILDREN EXPAND ABILITIES FOR CONJECTURE, HYPOTHESIZING, AND GUESSING. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Cooperate with others and systematically test ideas about how things work. Draw on past experience and increasing awareness of others. § Structures experiments to see how changes in one factor can influence changes in others. § Explains how one change can lead to another. § Explains how simple events occur. § Sets up and pursues purposeful experimentation; trying outdifferent solutions. § Makes predications about what will happen next. § Builds an awareness of other peoples’ points of view andfeelings. § Can hold more than one attribute in mind at once (teacher can also be a parent). § Moves from magical thinking to reasons for events. § Understands difference between live, not alive, and dead. § Understands problem-solving process includes classifying andreframing within co-constructed meaning. § Uses analogical thinking to allow transfer of problem-solving strategies to new situations. § Engage child in experimentation; ask predicting questions. § Provide child with a variety of materials to create experiments. § Demonstrate, explain, and engage child in taking steps to cause an outcome. § Recognize importance of children’s effectiveness inteaching one another. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REASONING AND LOGIC/ PROBLEM SOLVING GOAL 12: CHILDREN EXPAND ABILITIES FOR CONJECTURE, HYPOTHESIZING, AND GUESSING. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies First, Second, and Third Grades Become autonomous and confident to realistically identify problems and find solutions. § Transfers and generalizes some kinds of problem-solving patterns and schemas to new situations and predicts outcomes. § Has clearer understanding of other peoples’ actions andemotions, as separate from own. § Can predict intent of other child’s actions. § Uses problem-solving process, which includes classifying andreframing within co-constructed meaning. § Uses problem solving, which includes planning and mental representations of tasks, and is able to focus on the most relevant information. § Develops the capacity for purposeful experimentations andplans for a range of solutions. § Can delay gratification to find a solution. § Ask child to explain what they were thinking in relationships to activities, problems, experiments, situations. § Arrange opportunities for children to work in small groups or teams. § Engage children in “if/then” scenarios that are both fanciful and realistic (e.g., “If cows could fly, then . . . .,” or “If a car has a flat tire, then . . . . .”. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 13: CHILDREN COMPARE, CONTRAST, AND EVALUATE EXPERIENCES, TASKS, AND EVENTS BUILDING ON PRIOR KNOWLEDGE. Domain 1: Approaches to Learning and Cognitive Development Sub-Domain: Cognition and Cognitive Processes Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten First, Second, and Third Grades DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REASONING AND LOGIC/CRITICAL AND ANALYTIC THINKING GOAL 13: CHILDREN COMPARE, CONTRAST, AND EVALUATE EXPERIENCES, TASKS, AND EVENTS BUILDING ON PRIOR KNOWLEDGE. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Interacts with and observespeople and objects in theirenvironment. § Shakes stuffed animal or objects in same way as rattle to hear noise. § Watches separate body parts, their movement, and experiments with control of their movements. § Imitates actions, gestures, and sounds. § Explores objects in many different ways. § Sustains gaze or tracks object. § Observes activities. § Notices changes to familiar places and people. § Provide toys and objects of different textures that respond to the actions of the child (rattles, squeeze toys, cloth toys, and soft balls). § Play games with child that support understanding of object permanence (Peek-a-Boo, Hideand Seek). § Provide a stimulating environment for child to explore. § Respond to child’s behavior in an interactive way. § Demonstrate and explain the relationships between actions. § Provide experiences and materials for child to experiment with cause and effect. § Describe new toys and objects to examine, mouth, and move. § Describe comparisons during playful interactions. § Provide opportunities for baby to explore and examine the physical environment. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REASONING AND LOGIC/CRITICAL AND ANALYTIC THINKING GOAL 13: CHILDREN COMPARE, CONTRAST, AND EVALUATE EXPERIENCES, TASKS, AND EVENTS BUILDING ON PRIOR KNOWLEDGE. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Explore familiar people,objects, and settings toexperience new outcomes. § Uses objects as intended. § Understands how familiar objects are used in combination (spoon in bowl, socks on feet). § Distinguishes sounds and combinations of sounds. § Follows the edges of objects in a space (blanket, bed, or room). § Recognizes and responds to peoples facial expressions. § Tries out a variety of voice tones and way to vary sounds (babbling,squealing, yelling, shouting, pounding on a table, and ringing abell). § Stacks objects and knocks them over. § Fill and dump buckets and containers of toys. § Places objects around or carries them around. § Demonstrate, explain, and engage child in activities that show how different experiences relate to one another (e.g., “Your sweater goes on over your head just like your shirt goes on over your head.). § Use photos and objects to talk about child’s past experiences (photos or toy animal after anouting to the park, or family pictures). § Talk about what has happened during the day, as it happens. § Provide opportunities for stacking, knocking down, and moving toys. § Provide opportunities for music, song, and simple movements. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REASONING AND LOGIC/CRITICAL AND ANALYTIC THINKING GOAL 13: CHILDREN COMPARE, CONTRAST, AND EVALUATE EXPERIENCES, TASKS, AND EVENTS BUILDING ON PRIOR KNOWLEDGE. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Begin to take some risks and actively explore new ways of doing things with familiar people, objects, and settings to achieve additional positive consequences. § Generalizes ideas based on past experiences (watches caregiver blow on hot food before eating, then blows on food, hot or cold, at next meal). § Connects objects and ideas (broom for sweeping, swimsuit for swimming). § Labels that a person’s apparel is based on the weather outside (wearing a sweater means it is cold outside). § Imitates behavior seen in another place and time. § Notices and describes how items are the same or different. § Uses actions or words to justify choices. § Makes choices when given options (which toy to play with). § Articulates changes noticed in familiar places and people. § Identifies differences between own and others’ work. § Use child’s home language, experience, and culture to make connections to new experiences. § Engage child in routine activities while explaining the whys (e.g., “We vacuum the floor to clean upthe dirt.”). § Help child make generalizations (“If it is sunny here, it will probably be sunny at school.”). § Acknowledge child when a past event is recalled and used as the basis for a choice. § Demonstrate, explain, and engage child in comparing objects’ size, shape, and other characteristics. § Demonstrate, explain, and engage child in discussing what he/she likes and does not likeabout experiences. § Provide opportunities to talk about how one picture and block structure is alike, or for child to build following a field trip. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REASONING AND LOGIC/CRITICAL AND ANALYTIC THINKING GOAL 13: CHILDREN COMPARE, CONTRAST, AND EVALUATE EXPERIENCES, TASKS, AND EVENTS BUILDING ON PRIOR KNOWLEDGE. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Are eager to explore a wider variety of people, objects, and situations and can use past experience and observations in novel ways in unfamiliar situations. § Applies new information or vocabulary to an activity. § Uses information gained through one modality and applies it to anew context via another modality (tries to build a tower of blockslike the one seen in a book, draws pictures after a field trip). § Generates a strategy based on one learning event and extends it to a new learning opportunity (learns that mixing red and yellow paint makes orange, later tries coloring yellow crayon over red crayon). § Shows an understanding of same and different. § Recognizes and labels aspects of an event. § Sorts objects based on attributes (shape, size, and color). § Compares experiences, with or without prompting. § Explains simple benefits and/or drawbacks of choosing onecourse of action, with/without prompting. § Engage the child in activities and interactions that make connections by recalling past learning and events (engage child in “remember when...” games and discussions). § Demonstrate, explain, and engage child in activities thatrecall past events and relate what he/she learned from it. § Engage child in generalizing by asking open-ended questions (e.g., “Where else would this work?” “What if...?”). § Provide opportunities to sort objects for fun or as a chore. § Play games where the child identifies similarities and differences in the environment. § Engage in role playing activities. § Read or tell stories and talk about the characters’ similarities and differences. § Use open-ended questions. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REASONING AND LOGIC/CRITICAL AND ANALYTIC THINKING GOAL 13: CHILDREN COMPARE, CONTRAST, AND EVALUATE EXPERIENCES, TASKS, AND EVENTS BUILDING ON PRIOR KNOWLEDGE. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months throughKindergarten Sometimes thinks about problems and situations from the perspective of others and from different physical viewpoints. § Restates understanding of a situation or problem in own words. § Explains that a person stays the same, although appearance ischanged through masks, costumes, or makeup. § Understands that words are made up of letters. § Recognizes the defining characteristics of shapes (squares, rectangles, circles,ovals, triangles). § Organizes objects by more than one common characteristic. § Uses comparative words. § Compares the main characters or events of stories. § Describes experiences using comparative language. § Considers peers’ perspectives when making decisions. § Explains how he/she makes decisions. § Engage the child in activities and interactions that use known strategies in new situations. § Demonstrate, explain, and engage child in activities that explore questions and guidehim/her toward appropriate solutions. § Invite child to expand on what he/she meant by a certain response (e.g., “Tell me more about why you said that.”). § Engage child in discussing what he/she thinks another child meant by a given response (e.g., “Whydo you think Josie did that?”). § Evaluate pros and cons of a decision. § Evaluate a problem, task, or activity and its possible solutions. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REASONING AND LOGIC/CRITICAL AND ANALYTIC THINKING GOAL 13: CHILDREN COMPARE, CONTRAST, AND EVALUATE EXPERIENCES, TASKS, AND EVENTS BUILDING ON PRIOR KNOWLEDGE. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies First, Second, and Third Grades Use some systematic thinkingto reason about social andnatural phenomena. § Combines, separates, orders, and transforms information and objects. § Understands that such physical aspects of objects (size, quantity, and number) remain the sameeven when some aspects of their appearance change. § Can consider more elements of a problem at the same time (can think about alternatives when solving problems). § Can mentally retrace their steps, if they want to. § Can play games with rules. § Has increased ability to consider both behavior and psychological states and better interpret otherpeople's intentions. § Succeeds in solving problems and cooperatively playing in peer groups. § Can think about past, present, and future states of objects and people. § Organizes collections according to multiple criteria (sorting baseball cards according to league, team, and position). § Provide child many and varied activities and objects to stimulate their new abilities in problem solving. § Allow child to arrive at their own conclusions throughexperimentation. § Let child work in groups to generate multiple ideas and solutions. § Share stories about a variety of people and cultures. § Share stories with moral dilemmas and encourage child to generate multiple solutions. § Ask child to relate their own stories. § Listen to child's explanations of things and ask questions to explore alternate solutions. § Provide learning games. § Introduce history and compare to the present and future. § Provide opportunities to collect and classify objects. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 14: CHILDREN PARTICIPATE IN EXPLORATORY PLAY. Domain 1: Approaches to Learning and Cognitive Development Sub-Domain: Cognition and Cognitive Processes Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten First, Second, and Third Grades DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REPRESENTATIONAL THOUGHT AND PLAY GOAL 14. CHILDREN PARTICIPATE IN EXPLORATORY PLAY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Use sensory exploration. § Gathers information through the senses (mouthing, grasping, reaching). § Uses more than one sense at a time (uses sight, touch, taste, and hearing by examining and shakinga toy). § Observes objects in the environment for a brief period of time. § Initiates familiar play scheme (banging objects, grabbing spoon). § Engage in playful interactions allowing baby to explore your face. § Understand sensory motor development and provide stimulating objects and activities. § Provide toys and experiences that appeal to all senses. § Engage in reciprocal play such a Peek-a-Boo, hand clapping, stretching, and moving songs andgames. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REPRESENTATIONAL THOUGHT AND PLAY GOAL 14. CHILDREN PARTICIPATE IN EXPLORATORY PLAY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Use sensory motor skills withsome imitation; not goaldirected. Refine movementusing large and small muscles. § Uses all five senses to examine different objects with attention to detail. § Enjoys movement and motor play. § Observes and manipulates objects. § Engages in self- talk while playing. § Engages in reciprocal play with balls or throwing toys. § Enjoys filling and dumping or pushing and pulling activities. § Enjoys movement games with caretaker (Pat-a-Cake, Peek-a- Boo). § Seeks objects child sees caregivers use (keys, phones). § Lacks sequencing and abstraction until the end of this period. § Provide a safe environment for exploring and movement. § Engage in games with passing and rolling balls, and soft toys. § Explain what is occurring and what comes next during everyday routines. § Provide an array of play objects that meet child’s currentdevelopment. § Play music, sing songs, and dance with child. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REPRESENTATIONAL THOUGHT AND PLAY GOAL 14. CHILDREN PARTICIPATE IN EXPLORATORY PLAY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Use sensory motor play to extend the use of materials in functional ways. § Uses sorting and classifying. § Observes and manipulates objects to identify similarities or differences. § Uses simple tools (scoops, funnels, shovels, buckets). § Explores and plays with sand, mud, and water. § Enjoys hiding and finding games. § Enjoys jumping, climbing, and chase games. § Plays in front of a mirror. § Stacks, builds, and knocks down blocks. § Plays with malleable materials (play dough, clay, art materials). § Starts playing with wagons, tricycles, and push toys. § Initiates play with another child through gestures, offering toys, smiling, and eye contact. § Constructs using blocks, building bricks, and other manipulativetoys. § Provide a safe environment for exploring and movement. § Provide opportunities, both indoors and outdoors, for physicalactivities (climbing, jumping, dancing, and movement) bothalone and with peers. § Provide tactile materials for exploration (sand, water, play dough). § Provide tools and opportunities for digging, pouring, stacking, and picking up. § Rotate toys and provide enough to avoid some conflicts. § Play music, sing songs, move, and dance with child. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REPRESENTATIONAL THOUGHT AND PLAY GOAL 14. CHILDREN PARTICIPATE IN EXPLORATORY PLAY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Explore materials and actions. § Uses sorting, classifying, and seriation and patterning. § Climbs, swings, jumps, dances, and hops to test skills. § Aims, throws, catches, and kicks balls to explore projectile management. § Uses tools, hammers, saws, shovels, and levers to explore thephysical properties of moving masses. § Plays with wheeled toys (tricycles, scooters, wagons) to explore velocity. § Uses art materials to make functional objects. § Constructs with building bricks and manipulative toys to explore spatial relationships § Uses senses to explore physical environment (sand and water,sweet and sour, loud and soft, identify smells). § Provide manipulative toys for sorting, classifying, and arranging in groups and sequences, by attribute. § Understand functional play and its relationship to math andscience foundations. § Provide time for outdoor activities and play with digging tools, buckets, wheel toys, and balls. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REPRESENTATIONAL THOUGHT AND PLAY GOAL 14. CHILDREN PARTICIPATE IN EXPLORATORY PLAY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Work with persistence and confidence. § Creates elaborate block construction. § Uses rules and boundaries in representational building. § Experiments with balance, ramps, pulleys, and other tools when block building, constructing, or manipulating objects. § Takes apart/deconstructs to gain an understanding (gears, old sewing machine). § Works to replicate a building, object, or event through drawing/painting or block building. § Climbs, slides, runs, kicks, and jumps to explore movement. § Makes up games to test skills. § Reinterprets the rules for a game or sport to fit skill levels. § Enrich and structure environment (block area with extensive shapes and number of blocks; provide block props and raw materials). § Ask clarifying questions to extend play or overcome frustration. § Help groups of children negotiate rules and fairness. § Provide outdoor play environments for active games, observation, and exploration. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REPRESENTATIONAL THOUGHT AND PLAY GOAL 14. CHILDREN PARTICIPATE IN EXPLORATORY PLAY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies First, Second, andThird Grades Develop sense of self competence or self confidence that colors relationships to projects, games, and work. § Develops plans and models that can be built. § Enjoys physical activities and organizing games with rules. § Plays team sports. § Makes inventions. § Enjoys building projects, often with peers. § Can work in a group or on team projects. § Tests self with practice and training; will practice a specific skill. § Ask questions to further exploration and experimentation. § Limit electronic games so physical and exploratory playoccurs. § Provide time and space for indoor and outdoor exploration. § Support rule and fairness negotiations. § Support child who finds access to group play difficult. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 15: CHILDREN PARTICIPATE IN PRETEND OR SYMBOLIC PLAY. Domain 1: Approaches to Learning and Cognitive Development Sub-Domain: Cognition and Cognitive Processes Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten First, Second, and Third Grades DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REPRESENTATIONAL THOUGHT AND PLAY GOAL 15: CHILDREN PARTICIPATE IN PRETEND OR SYMBOLIC PLAY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through8 Months Sustain brief interactions with caregiver support. § Coordinates body and visual cues with caregiver. § Responds with interest to Peek-a- Boo and hand clapping. § Plays with sounds while exploring a toy. § Smiles, coos, relax muscles in reciprocal play with caregiver. § Engage baby in playful interactions (smiles, face-making, stroking). § Watch for child’s signals of looking to engage in interactions. § During care giving tasks, bring baby close and talk softly (feeding, diapering, face washing). § Provide baby opportunities to see objects and people wheninterested and alert. § Sing songs, say rhymes, look out the window, and show picture books while baby is alert and interested. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REPRESENTATIONAL THOUGHT AND PLAY GOAL 15: CHILDREN PARTICIPATE IN PRETEND OR SYMBOLIC PLAY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Use senses and mobility toexplore functionally, andevolve into using sensorymotor objects symbolically. § Uses objects functionally. § Uses objects symbolically. Use simple abstraction (a stick for a spoon, a tissue for a blanket). § Makes animal sounds. § Uses make-believe play (rocking or feeding a baby doll). § Imitates the roles of adults and older children. § Tell child stories about daily events or something special that happened, with the child as the central character. § Expose child to make-believe stories and songs from a varietyof cultures. § Demonstrate and engage child in making a variety of animal sounds. § Recognize child’s cues to engage in play. § Help coordinate and explain child’s often vague cues to initiate play to other children. § Support social referencing with child to engage in play with adult of other child. § Provide props and opportunities for imaginative play. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REPRESENTATIONAL THOUGHT AND PLAY GOAL 15: CHILDREN PARTICIPATE IN PRETEND OR SYMBOLIC PLAY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Use objects symbolically andcreates symbolic play. § Uses one object as a symbol for another (holds blocks to ear to represent a cell phone). § Explores experiences by taking on family roles from within the family. Uses simple, notelaborate, forms. § Moves from mostly solitary play to some parallel play. § Uses props in pretend play (dolls, animals, trucks, objects). § May have an imaginary friend. § Reacts to people in costume as if they are the characters theyportray. § Reacts to puppets as if they are real and not extensions of an adult or another child. § May use play to address some fears. § Initiates play with another child through gestures, offering a toy, smiling, and eye contact. § Uses theme play (animals go to the barn; babies are fed and put to bed). § Initiates favorite play themes with peer or adult. § Starts giving emotions and language to dolls and other play characters. § Participate in child’s sense of imagination by engaging in make- believe play, with child leading. § Dispel child’s fears that result from confusion over fantasy and reality. § Discuss child’s dreams, ideas, and imagination with him/her. § When a child has imaginary friends, acknowledge the “friend.” § Scaffold child’s inclusion of peers into dramatic play scenarios. § Read fiction and nonfiction books and share family and traditionaloral stories with child, and discuss how they are different. § Provide ample time and creation of imaginative play themes. § Provide props for creating play themes. § Acknowledge a child’s play with props, which is for the sake of using the prop, rather than for creating a theme (repeatedly opens and closes a cash register rather than playing store). DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REPRESENTATIONAL THOUGHT AND PLAY GOAL 15: CHILDREN PARTICIPATE IN PRETEND OR SYMBOLIC PLAY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Use elaborate plots, shared scripts, and multiple sequences and roles, with a mixture of reality and fantasy. § Explores experience by taking on familiar roles in the home and community (firefighters, restaurant, doctor’s office). § Takes on pretend roles and situations. Uses appropriatelanguage, tone, and movements (pretends to be a baby, crawlingon the floor and making baby sounds). § Engages in complex make- believe play (theme-oriented play that involves multiple characters and settings). § Makes connections between characters in books, stories, or movies, with people in real-life. § Questions if characters in books, family, and traditional oral stories and movies are real or not. § Believes objects, events, and characters can be “magic” or have“powers.” § Understands that conflict can arise from “misunderstanding each other. § Can return to favorite play themes with friends. § Uses dramatic play to recreate a real situation with self involvement. § Plays out social and emotional issues (power, loss, fears). § Uses block and dramatic play areas for imaginative settings and extended play. § Extends and consolidates understanding through play. § Engage the child in activities and interactions that develop fantasy characters while helping them differentiate between make- believe and reality. § Help child distinguish between cartoons, puppets, characters in books and movies, and realpeople. § Provide environment and time for dramatic play. § Scaffold entrance into dramatic play for child who needs supportto join play. § Clarify scripts and roles as part of conflict resolution. § Provide opportunities for pretend play outdoors with materials suchas sand, water, buckets and pans, fabric for tents, play scripts, balls,and opportunities to invent games. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REPRESENTATIONAL THOUGHT AND PLAY GOAL 15: CHILDREN PARTICIPATE IN PRETEND OR SYMBOLIC PLAY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Use elaborate fantasy play, can distinguish fantasy from reality. Negotiate scripts andcharacters. § Explains if a story is real or make- believe, when prompted. § Understands and expresses when fantasy is influencingactions (e.g., “I was just pretending to do that.”). § Recognizes some characters, places, and objects in books, movies, and television shows. § Engages in games with rules. Can spend more timenegotiating rules and scripts than in actual play. § Uses representational block play to create and recreate experiences. § Uses block building for both real and pretend scenarios anddescribes the difference. § Expresses own ideas through dramatic play. § May have favorite and recurring play themes. § Can transform written stories into dramatizations. § Enrich and structure environment (block area with extensive shapes and number of blocks; provide block props and raw materials). § Ask clarifying questions to extend play or overcome frustration. § Help groups of children negotiate rules and fairness. § Provide outdoor play environments for active games, observation, and exploration. § Provide a variety of open-ended props for children to choose as they develop play themes (large blocks, clothing, writing utensils, art and music tools, wheel toys, signs, platforms). DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REPRESENTATIONAL THOUGHT AND PLAY GOAL 15: CHILDREN PARTICIPATE IN PRETEND OR SYMBOLIC PLAY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies First, Second, andThird Grades Use elaborate fantasy play andcan usually distinguish fantasyfrom reality. § Engages in games with formalized rules; sometimes based on shared current culture characters or movies. § Can formalize plots and actions into presentations as plays orpuppet shows. § Understands clear distinctions between what is real and what is fantasy, although might argue with peer about degree or possibility. § Help child articulate and develop rules for games/play. § Encourage peer groups to develop shared plans for creatingplay and developing presentations. § Offer opportunities for discussions about fantasy and reality in stories, movies, and daily topics. § Use “what if” question to guide discussions. § Help child distinguish fantasy and reality in media, especially around commercials and advertising. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 16: CHILDREN REPRESENT EXPERIENCES AND THOUGHT THROUGH SYMBOLIC REPRESENTATION SUCH AS MOVEMENT, DRAWING, SINGING/VOCALIZING, AND PLAY. Domain 1: Approaches to Learning and Cognitive DevelopmentSub-Domain: Cognition and Cognitive Processes Birth through 8 Months 6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten First, Second, and Third Grades DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REPRESENTATIONAL THOUGHT AND PLAY GOAL 16: CHILDREN REPRESENT EXPERIENCES AND THOUGHT THROUGH SYMBOLIC REPRESENTATION SUCH AS MOVEMENT, DRAWING, SINGING/VOCALIZING, AND PLAY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Due to neurological immaturity, very young children are just developing sensory awareness that will later lead to intentional symbolic representation. § Varies intonation in their voices. § Looks for disappearing objects. § Enjoys Peek-a-Boo. § Pulls cloth off of face as part of a Peek-a-Boo game and giggle. § Responds to variation in temperature or taste of food. § Play Peek-a-Boo and games that engage and respond to a child. § Provide pictures and books, and talk about simple features (baby’snose, the dog). § Sing and move with baby. § Give animal or other sounds when baby sees animals in a book, picture, or nature. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REPRESENTATIONAL THOUGHT AND PLAY GOAL 16: CHILDREN REPRESENT EXPERIENCES AND THOUGHT THROUGH SYMBOLIC REPRESENTATION SUCH AS MOVEMENT, DRAWING, SINGING/VOCALIZING, AND PLAY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Engages in pre-symbolic play. § Draws or scribbles and explains what the drawing is. § Experiments with new uses for familiar objects. § Provides a simple description of a person or object that is not present (child barks when asked what noise the dog makes). § Shows object permanence (hiding and finding games, Peek- a-Boo). § Reacts to mental images of objects or events (claps hands when told that a favorite person is coming to visit). § Engage is simple reciprocal games with sounds and gestures. § Ask “can you find” or “show me” questions when looking at books. § Play “where is your nose,” “where is your eye” games. Can later ask in reference to own body and photographs. § Watch for child’s cues and sounds for pretend child-initiating play. § Provide painting and drawing materials and time for sensory exploration, with adult supervision. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REPRESENTATIONAL THOUGHT AND PLAY GOAL 16: CHILDREN REPRESENT EXPERIENCES AND THOUGHT THROUGH SYMBOLIC REPRESENTATION SUCH AS MOVEMENT, DRAWING, SINGING/VOCALIZING, AND PLAY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Begin to use symbolic expression in dramatic play and creative expression. § Offers brief explanations of drawings. § Expresses emotion and experiences through movement,drawing, music, or singing. § May use self-talk in play or painting/drawing. § May tell stories about an experience or event. § May scribble and call it writing. § Makes animal noises and looks to caregiver for recognition. § Identifies symbols or logos for familiar objects/place (McDonald’s arches). § Provide opportunities and materials for drawing, painting, and play dough activities in a small group; encourage talk. § Play music and suggest movement (e.g., “Jump like arabbit.” “Fly like a bird.” “Make a noise like a …”). § Use finger plays and songs with movement with child (recognize that children at this age usually do either movement or sing, but are not particularly good at both simultaneously). § Display child’s work. § Offer free-play and gently structured activities to include writing utensils, art media, and rhythm instruments. § Provide dress-up clothes and props for free-play. § Take pictures and display child’s symbolic attempts. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REPRESENTATIONAL THOUGHT AND PLAY GOAL 16: CHILDREN REPRESENT EXPERIENCES AND THOUGHT THROUGH SYMBOLIC REPRESENTATION SUCH AS MOVEMENT, DRAWING, SINGING/VOCALIZING, AND PLAY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Use symbolic expression in arts, communication, and quantity. § Provides a complex description of a person or object that is not present (child describes the dog is black, soft, and runs around; child gestures to show how big). § Uses symbols or pictures as a representation of oral language. § Uses objects to represent real items in make-believe play. § Recognizes objects, places, and ideas by symbols (recognizewhich is the men’s room and which is the women’s room bylooking at the stick figure symbols). § Uses creative means to express emotions when vocabulary is inadequate. § May use shapes and letters to “write messages.” § Provide opportunities for child to engage in symbolic play (act happy, imitate a sad puppy). § Provide opportunities for child to draw pictures of people, feelings, family, animals, and objects. § Tell stories without pictures and encourage child to visualize, imagine, and express what he/she feels. § Identify and point out symbols during daily activities; demonstrating and explainingwhat they mean. § Encourage child to draw a story, with caregiver as “scribe,” writing dictated words. Dictates the story and makes the illustrations. § Read stories and provide props for dramatizing the plot (ThreeBilly Goats Gruff and make a block bridge). DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REPRESENTATIONAL THOUGHT AND PLAY GOAL 16: CHILDREN REPRESENT EXPERIENCES AND THOUGHT THROUGH SYMBOLIC REPRESENTATION SUCH AS MOVEMENT, DRAWING, SINGING/VOCALIZING, AND PLAY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months throughKindergarten Use symbolic representation for numbers, letters, andwords; and for expression increative arts. § Combines drawing and art expression with words. § Uses art, music, and movement to express self and feelings thatare beyond verbal expression. § Responds to books and pictures that express emotions and social roles with empathy or association. § Represents simple objects through drawings, movement, mime, and three-dimensionalconstructs. § Uses physical objects to demonstrate vocabulary (create two piles of blocks to demonstrate “more” and “less”). § Independently chooses new and different materials to representoriginal thoughts, ideas, and feelings. § Engage child in creating symbols to represent familiar objects (e.g., “What would a symbol for your bed look like?”). § Provide opportunities for child to participate in culture specificrepresentational activities (storytelling, oral history, dance,songs). § Offer opportunities for using and showing how words help us function in daily life. DOMAIN 1: APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: COGNITION AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES REPRESENTATIONAL THOUGHT AND PLAY GOAL 16: CHILDREN REPRESENT EXPERIENCES AND THOUGHT THROUGH SYMBOLIC REPRESENTATION SUCH AS MOVEMENT, DRAWING, SINGING/VOCALIZING, AND PLAY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies First, Second, and Third Grades Prefer to use more individualized symbolic expression. § Can recognize self or own feelings as being similar to a character in a book, movie, or play. § May have an artistic or active body means of expressingemotion and thoughts. § Can take a different physical perspective when drawing or map drawing. Child can draw both a floor plan “bird’s eye view,” and an elevation or frontal view and know they both represent the same object. § Uses humor with the realization that words have multiple meanings. § Provide stories that have more than one meaning and talk about multiple meanings with child. § Provide folk tales and cultural stories for dramatic presentations or artistic representation. § Provide opportunities for perspective taking when drawing, building, and creating, including some models. § Use map making and symbol drawing sequences (story pictures) as means of extendingchild’s thinking and perspective taking. § Engage child in using words for expressing humor. DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTION During the first years of life, the human body changes continuously and dramatically. These changes are not simply a matter of growing taller or gaining more weight; they also involve a complex series of changes in body composition, proportion, and motordevelopment. Long acknowledged as cornerstones of early development and learning and as key dimensions of school readiness,children’s physical well-being, health, and motor development have received substantial attention in medical, educational, anddevelopmental literature. Through an interaction of maturation and experience, physical and motor development occurs along a relatively predictable sequence from simple to complex. Three general principles underlie the acquisition of motor skills: § Most children develop motor control and coordination from head to toe. § Children develop motor control and coordination from the center of their bodies outward. § Children develop motor skills involving reflexes, then large muscles, and then progress to smaller muscles. The order in which these abilities develop is virtually the same for children around the world (e.g., they learn to lift their heads up beforethey learn to control their fingers). RATIONALE Physical well-being, health, and motor development are central to children’s learning experience and are building blocks to a lifelong active and healthy lifestyle. Motor development is closely linked with children’s: § Language development (e.g., babbling, pointing to objects). § Cognition (e.g., exploring new environments, crawling or stooping down to explore, building with blocks). § Social competencies (e.g., hugging, watching others, waving bye-bye, sharing a tricycle ride). § Emotional development (e.g., smiling, laughing, dancing). The development of young children’s physical and motor skills is often uneven. Growth spurts in physical development are common. NOTE: Supplemental materials for parents, child care providers, teachers, and policy makers provide appropriate examples. Children’s physical development is influenced by external factors such as nutrition and access to health and dental care. Various social and environmental risks (e.g., firearms, lead, pesticides, inadequate or unhealthy water supplies, violent homes and neighborhoods, water safety) also impact children’s physical well-being. GENERAL DEFINITION Domain 2: Physical Well-Being, Health, and Motor Development, consists of five sub-domains: § Motor Development § Physical Development § Health and Personal Care § Nutrition and Feeding § Safety MOTOR DEVELOPMENT Motor development has three distinct components: gross motor skills, fine motor skills, and sensorimotor skills. Gross motor skills are characterized by movements of the large muscles of the body and include such movements as rolling over, walking, jumping, and climbing. Fine motor skills involve the ability to coordinate smaller muscles including the muscles of the hands, fingers, and face that allow formovements such as grasping, cutting, picking up food, or intentionally winking. Sensorimotor skills involve the ability to use and integrate the senses (sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch) to support activity. These skills provide a foundation for behavior, learning, and overall development for young children. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Children need access to free time, play opportunities, adequate space, and challenging materials to pursue their physical development needs. Physical competence allows children to participate in group activities and maintain attention to, and interest in tasks necessary to the learning process. Elements of physical competency and development include: § Stamina § Energy § Strength § Flexibility § Coordination § Endurance HEALTH AND PERSONAL CARE Prenatal care, personal hygiene, and basic personal care are essential to a child’s physical health. Children’s physical health is impacted by access to medical and dental care, nutrition, healthy sleep patterns, and opportunity for physical activity and active play. Recognizing and addressing acute and chronic illness is essential to sustain healthy physical development. NUTRITION AND FEEDING Goal 24, Children eat a variety of nutritious foods encompasses far more than food groups and nutrients fed to children. Attitudes, self regulation, culture, and general areas of development are entwined with food and feeding. SAFETY Safety includes protecting children from exposure to harmful substances and situations and helping children learn to avoid harmful objects, environments, and circumstances. Though young children can learn safety rules and regulations, know when and how to ask for help, and recognize the boundary between safety and danger, they cannot be expected to keep themselves safe. Young children’s physical well-being is dependent on adult-provided safety. SUPPORTING INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Physical and motor development includes biological maturation that reflects genetics, nutrition, health, and the environment. Development of physical skills and abilities follows a predictable progression, though the rate of physical and motor development varies widely among individuals, cultures, and contexts. Children’s physical well-being, health, and motor development are sometimes impacted by visual, hearing, motor, neurological, orother disabilities. Young children who experience delays, disabilities, or who are at risk for developmental delays may benefit fromassistive technology or adaptive equipment, specialized activities, space, play settings, and other resources to support daily activities. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 17: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE STRENGTH AND COORDINATION OF LARGE MOTOR MUSCLES. Domain 2: Physical Well-Being, Health, and Motor Development Sub-Domain: Motor Development Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: MOTOR DEVELOPMENT GROSS MOTOR SKILLS: BALANCE, MOVEMENT, AND COORDINATION GOAL 17: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE STRENGTH AND COORDINATION OF LARGE MOTOR MUSCLES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through8 Months Gain control of head, trunk, arms, and legs. § Moves initially in a predominantly reflexive way (rooting, sucking, grasping, blinking, and swallowing). § Holds head erect and steady when held on a shoulder. § Lifts head and chest while lying on tummy. § Extends legs and kicks when lying on tummy or back. § Supports upper body with arms when lying on tummy. § Sucks thumb or fingers. § Gains control of arm and leg movements. § Rolls from side to back, then from back to front. § Pounds on things with hands and kicks legs. § Reaches for feet and brings them to mouth. § Sits with support. § Moves from sitting position to crawling or prone position. § Encourage supervised tummy time. § Provide periods of supervised play when infant is awake using avariety of positions (back, tummy, side). § Provide secure bedding, diapering, and feeding equipment because infant cannot efficiently control movements. DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: MOTOR DEVELOPMENT GROSS MOTOR SKILLS: BALANCE, MOVEMENT, AND COORDINATION GOAL 17: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE STRENGTH AND COORDINATION OF LARGE MOTOR MUSCLES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Develop strength, balance, andcoordination to change theposition of the body from lyingto sitting, to standing, and thento walking, with or withoutsupport. § Sits in lap with head steady. § Rocks back and forth on hands and knees and, later, crawl. § Moves to sitting position, without assistance. § Sits steady, without support. § Pulls self up to stand while holding onto something or someone. § Walks two or three steps, without support. § Walks holding on to furniture, then, later as the primary means of moving around. § Stoops over to explore things on the ground; first without, and then with balance. § Tries to climb stairs, with assistance. § Carries toys or objects while walking. § Provide opportunities for child to move safely and freely during waking hours. § Provide large motor challenges in environment (pillows, mats, foam risers, variety of surfaces/levels). § Provide a safe environment and objects for physical activity. § Provide a variety of push/pull toys. § Play interactive games and sing songs from child’s home culture that involves child’s hands, feet, and body. § Provide motor challenges to allow child to go to the next level ofdevelopment by moving up, over, around, on top of, and throughequipment (slides, tunnels, multilevel foam risers). § Offer adaptive equipment to build strength if a child has a disability (adaptive chair or scooter boards for exploring a room). DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: MOTOR DEVELOPMENT GROSS MOTOR SKILLS: BALANCE, MOVEMENT, AND COORDINATION GOAL 17: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE STRENGTH AND COORDINATION OF LARGE MOTOR MUSCLES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Coordinate whole body to make complex movements for moving from place to place (walk, run, hop, climb). § Walks and runs with skill; changing both speed and direction. § Walks backwards. § Climbs in and out of bed, or onto a steady adult chair. § Pounds object with intent and precision (hammers peg with accuracy). § Kicks and throws a ball, but with little control of direction or speed. § Jumps in place. § Balances on one foot briefly. § Bends over easily at the waist without falling. § Walks in a straight line. § Walks up and down stairs (not alternating feet), withoutassistance. § Play with child and encourage them to run, throw, jump, kick, and climb. § Provide a variety of materials and equipment (riding toys, low climbing structures). § Engage child in physical activities that promote balance (rocking, swinging, rolling, and spinning). § Provide opportunities for child to try different body positions(bending, twisting). § Modify activities to ensure individual participation of each child (provide ramps or low steps to ensure access to climbing equipment). DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: MOTOR DEVELOPMENT GROSS MOTOR SKILLS: BALANCE, MOVEMENT, AND COORDINATION GOAL 17: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE STRENGTH AND COORDINATION OF LARGE MOTOR MUSCLES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Coordinate whole body to move in complex ways with strength, agility, and balance. § Walks and runs following circular paths (around obstacles and corners). § Runs, pivots to change direction, and stops as appropriate. § Crawls through a play tunnel or under tables. § Climbs on play equipment. § Throws large beanbags or ball with some accuracy. § Catches large balls with two hands. § Kicks ball forward. § Balances on one foot; hops forward on one foot. § Jumps on two feet and jumps over small objects with balance and control. § Jumps from a height. § Jumps for distance. § Gallops. § Pedals consistently when riding a tricycle. § Starts and stops a tricycle intentionally. § Walks up and down stairs using alternating feet. § Provide safe equipment and environments that vary in skill levels (tricycles, tires, hoops, balls, balance beam, climbing equipment). § Teach child new skills (skip, throw overhand, jump rope, hula hoop, swim). § Provide activities in which only one side of the body is used at a time (hopping, standing on one foot). § Provide opportunities for dance and other movement activities that use both sides of the body(bending, twisting, stretching, balancing). DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: MOTOR DEVELOPMENT GROSS MOTOR SKILLS: BALANCE, MOVEMENT, AND COORDINATION GOAL 17: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE STRENGTH AND COORDINATION OF LARGE MOTOR MUSCLES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Coordinate multiple movements with accuracy andpurpose. § Runs with an even gait and with few falls. § Hop on each foot separately, without support and with balance. § Maintains balance while bending, twisting, or stretching. § Walks up and down stairs while holding an object in one or both hands. § Moves body into position to catch a ball; then throws the ball in the right direction. § Kicks large ball to a given point, with some accuracy. § Alternates weight and feet while skipping or using stairs. § Throws a medium-size ball, with some accuracy. § Moves to a rhythm (marching). § Runs forward, backward, slides to the side, and pivots without pausing. § Provide opportunities for child to participate in activities that develop large muscles (soccer, dance, basketball, freeform play with balls, bicycle riding). § Include child in simple, small physical chores (taking out trash, raking leaves). § Offer environments, both inside and outside, that include opportunities for climbing, jumping, throwing, catching, running, and using wheel toys. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 18: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE STRENGTH AND COORDINATION OF SMALL MOTOR MUSCLES. Domain 2: Physical Well-Being, Health, and Motor Development Sub-Domain: Motor Development Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: MOTOR DEVELOPMENT FINE-MOTOR SKILLS: PREHENSION, REACHING, AND MANIPULATION GOAL 18: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE STRENGTH AND COORDINATION OF SMALL MOTOR MUSCLES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Bring hands and objects to mouth. Purposefullymanipulate objects. § Grasps caregiver’s fingers. § Brings hands into visual space and moves them. § Reaches and swipes at a dangled object. § Reaches for a toy, mouth open, and brings object to mouth forexploration. § Watches hands while reaching, making some spatial corrections. § Grasps and releases an object. § When on back, brings extended hands together over chest to grasp or to swipe mobile. § When on tummy, or supported sitting, uses both hands to grasp toy and brings towards self. § Grasps a toy, releases it to the other hand, or drops it. § When relaxed or playing, uses mostly open hands, ready to grasp. § Put finger on baby’s palm for grasping. § Hold or hang safe objects for baby to swipe, both while on backand held on lap. § Provide safe toys within reach for baby to grasp and mouth; encouraging interaction. § Provide opportunities for baby to reach for objects. § Provide opportunities for baby to play while on its back. DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: MOTOR DEVELOPMENT FINE-MOTOR SKILLS: PREHENSION, REACHING, AND MANIPULATION GOAL 18: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE STRENGTH AND COORDINATION OF SMALL MOTOR MUSCLES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Demonstrate development and precision of eye-handcoordination by grasping andmanipulating objects inexploration, and including bothhands in accomplishing a task. § Turns pages with adult help. § Shakes a rattle. § Transfers small object from hand to hand. § Pushes an object off highchair tray. § Picks up small objects with thumb and forefinger. § Bangs objects together. § Waves bye-bye and claps hands. § Empties objects from container. § Tries to imitate scribbling. § Turns pages of a board book independently. § Points at object that is out of reach. § Holds fat crayon with a full-hand grasp and scribbles on large paper. § Fits two cups together, one inside the other. § Holds toys in one hand and explores it with the other. § Stacks two to three objects. § Provide toys to grasp, transfer, release, and drop; playfully handing the toy back to the baby (rattles, small blocks, or toys). § Provide fat crayons and large paper. § Provide objects for play that offer a variety of sizes and textures. § Provide board books to encourage reaching, mouthing, and page turning. § Provide a variety of safe objects and containers to manipulate. DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: MOTOR DEVELOPMENT FINE-MOTOR SKILLS: PREHENSION, REACHING, AND MANIPULATION GOAL 18: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE STRENGTH AND COORDINATION OF SMALL MOTOR MUSCLES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Coordinate arms, hands, and fingers to accomplish purposeful fine-motor tasks. § Turns book pages, one page at a time, most of the time. § Scribbles with crayons and begins to imitate marks (a circle). § Uses a paintbrush. § Folds blanket, cloth diaper, or paper, with assistance. § Pours or dumps water, sand, and other materials using other containers or a simple tool. § Opens doors, with assistance, by turning and pulling doorknobs. § Eats with utensils; using some eating utensils appropriately. § Pours liquid from a small pitcher to a cup. § Completes simple insert puzzles (uses shape sorter box or puts pegs into peg board). § Imitates hand motions of simple finger plays or songs. § Engage child in scribbling using crayons, chalk, and large pencils. § Provide experiences that support the use of hands in many differentpositions (finger painting, manipulating clay, painting at anupright easel). § Engage child in activities that promote moving fingers individually (finger plays, typing on a toy keyboard, making music). § Model uses of writing and drawing in everyday life. § Engage child in playing with and stacking blocks and/or small household objects. § Provide child-sized utensils during mealtime. § Provide opportunities for water and sand play. DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: MOTOR DEVELOPMENT FINE-MOTOR SKILLS: PREHENSION, REACHING, AND MANIPULATION GOAL 18: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE STRENGTH AND COORDINATION OF SMALL MOTOR MUSCLES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Use fingers and hands for purposeful tasks. § Eats with utensils; scoops, spears, and spreads food. § Uses various drawing and art materials (crayons, brushes,finger paints). § Copies shapes and geometric designs. § Opens and closes blunt scissors with one hand. § Cuts a piece of paper on a straight line and on a curve. Child needs sharp scissors to cut accurately. § Manipulates small objects with ease (strings beads, fits small objects into holes). § Fastens large buttons. § Uses large zippers. § Uses stapler or paper punch. § Completes increasingly complex puzzles (single, cut-out figures to 10-piece puzzles). § Writes some recognizable letters or numbers. § Engage child in activities that strengthen hand grasp (molding play dough, using a hand-held hole punch). § Encourage child to strengthen grasp of thumb/forefinger (gluingsmall pieces of paper, peeling/sticking stickers, pickingup small objects with fingers). § Encourage use of precision grasp (using writing utensils such as crayons, pencils, markers, paints). § Provide opportunities for child to practice tying, buttoning, and beading. § Demonstrate and provide opportunities for child to use scissors safely (include adaptive scissors). § Modify activities to ensure participation of each child (attach rubber grips to pencils and pens). § Offer supervised wood-working opportunities (gluing, hammering, screwing, sawing). DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: MOTOR DEVELOPMENT FINE-MOTOR SKILLS: PREHENSION, REACHING, AND MANIPULATION GOAL 18: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE STRENGTH AND COORDINATION OF SMALL MOTOR MUSCLES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Manipulate materials in a purposeful way, planning and attending to fine details. § Removes and replaces easy-to- open container lids. § Folds paper and makes paper objects (airplanes, origami), withassistance. § Cuts, draws, glues with provided materials. § Ties knots and shoe laces, with assistance. § Prints letters with some legibility. § Buttons large buttons on clothing. § Tears tape off a dispenser without letting the tape get stuck to itself, most of the time. § Puts together and pulls apart manipulatives appropriately. § Involve child in daily activities (setting a table, preparing food, or lacing shoes). § Play card games in which child must hold, pick up, and turn over cards (Memory, Go Fish). § Provide daily opportunities for child to use art supplies that support fine-motor skills (crayons, chalk, pencils, scissors, glue, stickers). § Provide small materials to manipulate such as buildingbricks, hammer and nails, or beads for stringing and sewing. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 19: CHILDREN USE THEIR SENSES (SIGHT, HEARING, SMELL, TASTE, AND TOUCH) TO GUIDE AND INTEGRATE THEIR INTERACTIONS. Domain 2: Physical Well-Being, Health, and Motor DevelopmentSub-Domain: Motor Development Birth through 8 Months 6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SENSORY MOTOR SKILLS GOAL 19: CHILDREN USE THEIR SENSES (SIGHT, HEARING, SMELL, TASTE, AND TOUCH) TO GUIDE AND INTEGRATE THEIR INTERACTIONS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Respond to sensory input. § Responds by turning toward sound, movement, and touch. § Focuses eyes on objects near and far. § Tracks objects by turning head. § Explores the environment with mouth and hands. § Adjusts to changes without becoming distressed (moving through space, sudden noises, etc.). § Distinguishes and responds to differences in sound and intonation. § Simplify sensory experiences (decrease clutter, noise, visual input, etc.). § Ensure child receives routine vision and hearing screenings. § Monitor child’s environment for variety of sound levels and types of sound. § Avoid putting electronic toys in crib. Keep loud noises away from infant’s ears. § Place a mobile near infant’s crib (safely out of the child’s reach) to stimulate vision and other senses. § Avoid prolonged periods in highchairs or devices that restrictmovement (mechanical swings, baby carrier). § Wait for child’s visual or tactile response as sensory changes occur in the environment. § Give adequate time for the baby to respond to changes. DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SENSORY MOTOR SKILLS GOAL 19: CHILDREN USE THEIR SENSES (SIGHT, HEARING, SMELL, TASTE, AND TOUCH) TO GUIDE AND INTEGRATE THEIR INTERACTIONS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Intentionally respond to sensory input and to coordinate actions based on input. § Orients to a speaker when addressed by name. § Coordinates eye and hand movements (puts objects intolarge container). § Explores and responds to different surface textures. § Moves body in response to music and sounds. § Explores and responds to a variety of textures, sounds, smells, tastes, and visual input. § Moves body in rhythm to music and sounds. § Seeks out sensory input by mouthing or touching objects. § May respond with surprise or resistance to moved sensory input. § Respond to child’s sensory cues by giving additional sensory stimulation or reducing sensory stimulation. § Provide time daily for child to move freely on the floor in a safeenvironment. § Incorporate a variety of surface materials in the environment (hard top tables, soft cushions). § Provide opportunities to listen to music. § Provide opportunities to listen to, to discriminate, and to make a variety of sounds including quiet and louder sounds. § Provide materials and objects of various textures, shapes, colors,smells, and sounds. § Talk with child about the colors, sounds, temperatures, tastes, and smells of things during daily activities. § Sing/play music and encourage movement to the rhythm ofsounds and music. DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SENSORY MOTOR SKILLS GOAL 19: CHILDREN USE THEIR SENSES (SIGHT, HEARING, SMELL, TASTE, AND TOUCH) TO GUIDE AND INTEGRATE THEIR INTERACTIONS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Regulate actions and responses based on sensory input. § Demonstrates awareness of own body in space (walks around table without bumping into it). § Performs basic creative movements, with adult guidance or alone (dances to music orrhythm). § Eats food with a variety of textures, tastes, and temperatures. § Exhibits eye-hand coordination (builds with blocks, completes simple puzzles, or strings largebeads). § Climbs, walks up inclines, slides, swings to integrate sensory input. § Plays with materials of different textures (sand, water, leaves). § Provide physical experiences that integrate child’s movements with all of the senses (shadow play, painting with feet, playground equipment). § Comment positively and specifically about how a child is responding to a sensoryexperience in play (e.g., “You smelled that yellow flower twotimes. Did it smell good or bad?”). § Model movements and invite child to participate (dance or drum together). § Provide objects for catching and throwing (large, soft balls;beanbags). § Provide a variety of sensory materials such as water, snow, mud, and sand for the child to explore. § Offer a variety of food with varying textures, tastes, andtemperatures. DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SENSORY MOTOR SKILLS GOAL 19: CHILDREN USE THEIR SENSES (SIGHT, HEARING, SMELL, TASTE, AND TOUCH) TO GUIDE AND INTEGRATE THEIR INTERACTIONS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Coordinate motor activities based on sensory input. § Coordinates motor activity based on visual input. § Holds materials at an appropriate distance. § Moves eyes rather than head to track objects. § Physically reacts appropriately to the environment (bends knees to soften a landing, moves quickly toavoid obstacles). § Demonstrates concepts through movement (imitates an animal through movement, sounds, dress, dramatization, dance). § Improves eye-hand coordination for precise movement (catches abounced ball). § Coordinates motor activity based on auditory input (runs to look out the window when hearing a siren). § Demonstrates sensory regulation by pushing objects, climbing short ladders, swinging on a swing, andsliding. § Play word games and sing songs that use the senses. § Set up an obstacle course of chairs, sticks, boxes, and givedirections; go over the box, under the chair, and beside the stick. § Provide opportunities for the child to explore natural surroundings through the senses. § Provide opportunities for the child to integrate rhythm, sounds, andmusic with motor activity; like striking a drum to the beat ormarching with the rhythm. § Provide opportunities to use touch, pressure, and texture to learn to push, pull, or lift an object effectively. DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SENSORY MOTOR SKILLS GOAL 19: CHILDREN USE THEIR SENSES (SIGHT, HEARING, SMELL, TASTE, AND TOUCH) TO GUIDE AND INTEGRATE THEIR INTERACTIONS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months throughKindergarten Integrate sensory motor skillsinto actions. § Hits a medium-size ball (6 to 8 inches) with a bat, with some consistency. § Catches a ball thrown from a distance of 5 to 10 feet. § Manipulates simple puppets. § Carries a glass of water or juice across the room without spilling it. § Participate in vigorous, active play (freeze tag, hide and seek, snow play). § Pivots, runs, and stops with control. § Successfully aims and tosses objects. § Provide play opportunities that involve eye-hand coordination (a ball and/or bat). § Provide opportunities for the child to explore spatial relationships (playing games with otherchildren, crawling through tunnels, swinging on hand bars, andmanaging projectiles such as a basketball and hoop). § Explore foods from a variety of tastes and textures. § Provide safe and supervised opportunities for the child to try a variety of activities with limitedsensory input (using headphones, blindfold, and gloves). § Provide opportunities for play and games using sensory instructions. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 20: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE THE STAMINA AND ENERGY TO PARTICIPATE IN DAILY ACTIVITIES. Domain 2: Physical Well-Being, Health, and Motor Development Sub-Domain: Physical Development Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT PHYSICAL FITNESS GOAL 20: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE THE STAMINA AND ENERGY TO PARTICIPATE IN DAILY ACTIVITIES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Develop nerves and muscles to sustain movement. § Shows an increased length of time in an alert state; lifts head and makes facial expressions. § Moves from requiring full head and trunk support to supported sitting and rolling. § Pushes up on elbows, then straightens elbows while on tummy. § Regularly place young infant with tummy on the floor to strengthen muscles. § Stimulate child with sound and facial expression to solicit response within child’s abilities. § Respond to child’s reflexive and intentional movement by providing safe, supportive spaces and places. DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT PHYSICAL FITNESS GOAL 20: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE THE STAMINA AND ENERGY TO PARTICIPATE IN DAILY ACTIVITIES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Sustain strength for purposefulmovement. § Walks, runs, climbs, jumps in place, crawls, squats, and rolls throughout the day. § Alternates quiet and active movement. § Indicates fatigue or desire for movement by seeking rest or un- restrained movement. § Initiates and maintains active play and exploring and interacting with the environment. § Respond to child’s cues that indicate the need for quiet or active time. § Provide opportunities and a variety of toys that encourage movement and physical activityon a daily basis. § Show encouragement when children try new motor activities. § Model daily physical activities (walking, running, lifting). § Provide child with regular nap and bedtime routines. § Offer water throughout the day. § Offer snacks and meals at least every 2½ hours. DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT PHYSICAL FITNESS GOAL 20: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE THE STAMINA AND ENERGY TO PARTICIPATE IN DAILY ACTIVITIES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Sustain strength for increasedperiods of time. § Participates actively in simple games, and uses simple, active play materials and toys. § Runs spontaneously on sturdy surfaces. § Engages in unstructured physical activities (playing on slides, swings, or tricycles; climbing and running games, dancing, and marching). § Sleeps well; awakening rested and ready for daily activities. § Provide child with physical activity throughout each day (including outdoor play on slides, swings, tricycles, climbing equipment, and running games; as well as tumbling mats and foam risers for indoor use). § Provide a safe and inviting play area that encourages sustained movement and balance. § Provide common objects for structured physical activity (child- size equipment, musical instruments, active follow-along songs, and basic rhythms). Provide child with daily calm and rest periods or nap times. § Limit child’s screen time (watching TV and videos, playingcomputer games) to no more than 2 hours of quality children’sprogramming in each 24-hour period. § Take daily short walks with the child. § Model physical activity by playing with the child rather than watching the child play. DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT PHYSICAL FITNESS GOAL 20: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE THE STAMINA AND ENERGY TO PARTICIPATE IN DAILY ACTIVITIES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Sustain strength for increasedperiods of time. § Carries light objects, bags, or backpacks for a short distance. § Repetitively practices new skills. § Engages in sustained unstructured physical activity on a daily basis. § Provide a variety of daily opportunities for the child to engage in noncompetitive physical activities. § Provide at least 60 minutes of unstructured physical activitieseach day. § Make physical activity interesting and challenging (set up a simple and safe obstacle course outside or inside where child climbs over, under, and through things; incorporate movement to music). § Provide balance between stimulating and restful activities. DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT PHYSICAL FITNESS GOAL 20: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE THE STAMINA AND ENERGY TO PARTICIPATE IN DAILY ACTIVITIES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months throughKindergarten Sustain strength for increased periods of time. § Runs 50 to 75 yards, without stopping. § Engages in physical activities (active games, bike riding,vigorous peer play) for up to 60 minutes throughout each day. § Engages in sustained physical activities (movement games with other children, dancing to music). § Provide opportunities for the child to engage in daily physical activities. § Engage the child in activities that require physical exertion. § Provide opportunities for the child to reach new physical goals ( hopping on one foot repeatedly, jumping over small boxes). § Encourage the child to reach and exceed personal goals rather thanto compete with others. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 21: CHILDREN ENGAGE IN A VARIETY OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES. Domain 2: Physical Well-Being, Health, and Motor Development Sub-Domain: Physical Development Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT PHYSICAL FITNESS GOAL 21: CHILDREN ENGAGE IN A VARIETY OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Child moves reflexively, then with intentionality. § Reaches for items, and kicks items with intention. § Child’s body responds as reflexes are stimulated (grasping, rooting,and sucking reflexes). § Provide a variety of materials and toys for child to explore and play with. § Rotate toys and materials on a regular basis. § Make play a part of the child’s daily activities (during a diaper change, lift the baby’s legs and make marching movements as you chant). § Avoid screen time for child younger than 2 years old (TV, videos, computer activities,DVDs). DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT PHYSICAL FITNESS GOAL 21: CHILDREN ENGAGE IN A VARIETY OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Participate in a variety of age appropriate movement and physical daily activities. § Shows excitement when toys and objects are used in play. § Runs, climbs, jumps in place, crawls, squats, and rollsthroughout the day. § Participates in simple movement games. § Demonstrates willingness to try new games and toys. § Show enthusiasm and encouragement when child tries new motor activities. § Encourage child to play both inside and outside, on a daily basis. § Engage child in simple movement games (So Big, Pat-a-Cake, Ring- Around-the-Rosie). § Share child’s excitement about and enjoyment of physicalactivities. § Talk with child about the positive effects of physical fitness. § Encourage child to play both inside and outside, on a dailybasis. DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT PHYSICAL FITNESS GOAL 21: CHILDREN ENGAGE IN A VARIETY OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Participate in a variety of age appropriate movement and physical daily activities. § Attempts new activities that require physical movement, with or without adult assistance. § Participates actively in simple games, dance, and movement activities. § Initiates physical activities. § Develops a sense of games, and starting play in games like“chase,” or being active characters (firefighter or herofigures). § Talk with child about the positive effects of exercise. § Model enthusiasm for a variety of physical activities. § Provide support as child attempts an activity that is challenging. § Play a variety of active games with child (simple and safe obstacle course or running withscarves as parachute play). § Limit child’s screen time (watching TV and videos, playing computer games) to no more than 2 hours of quality programming each day. § Move to music or sing songs with the child that involves physical movement. DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT PHYSICAL FITNESS GOAL 21: CHILDREN ENGAGE IN A VARIETY OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Participate in a variety of age appropriate movement and physical daily activities. § Participates in different physical activities (walking, climbing, throwing, dancing) with varying levels of engagement. § Initiates structured and unstructured physical activitiesthroughout the day. § Incorporates various physical activities while transitioning from one place to another (marches between the kitchen and the bathroom). § Participates in cooperative games with peers. § Engage child in group exercise times/activities (bike rides, family walks). § Engage child in different kinds of physical activities (throwing balls, climbing playground equipment,helping with chores, dancing). § Provide child the opportunity to play in different settings (neighborhood park with outdoor play equipment, play groups with other children). DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT PHYSICAL FITNESS GOAL 21: CHILDREN ENGAGE IN A VARIETY OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months throughKindergarten Participate in a variety of age appropriate movement and physical daily activities. § Participates regularly in physical activity (walks, dances, and plays organized or informal sports). § Helps with physical chores (raking leaves, sweeping the floor, carrying laundry, putting awaytoys). § Participates in cooperative games with peers. § Provide opportunities for child to play song games incorporating music, movement, and social interaction. § Participate in regular physical activities with child (swimming,walking, skating, hiking, playing ball, drumming, skiing). § Provide opportunities for child to participate in activities that require new skill development. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 22: CHILDREN PRACTICE BASIC PERSONAL CARE ROUTINES. Domain 2: Physical Well-Being, Health, and Motor Development Sub-Domain: Health and Personal Care Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: HEALTH AND PERSONAL CARE DAILY LIVING SKILLS GOAL 22: CHILDREN PRACTICE BASIC PERSONAL CARE ROUTINES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Begin to develop anawareness of basic physicalneeds related to personal care. § Indicates needs and wants such as sleep or discomfort from heat or cold. § Indicates anticipation of feeding on seeing the breast or bottle. § Demonstrates increasing ability to self-soothe and fall asleep. § Shows feelings of hunger and fullness in feeding routines. § Respond positively and promptly when child indicates need (need for food, diaper change, blanket). § Provide child with a safe and comfortable sleeping environment. § Wash your hands and child’s hands frequently to help prevent the spread of colds and viruses. § Use routines around feeding, waking, and playing. DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: HEALTH AND PERSONAL CARE DAILY LIVING SKILLS GOAL 22: CHILDREN PRACTICE BASIC PERSONAL CARE ROUTINES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Participate in routines to meet basic personal needs. § Indicates needs and wants such as hunger or sleep. § Assists caregiver with holding bottle; later grasps a cup. § Begins to finger feed self crackers and other easy-to- dissolve foods. § May indicate when in need of diaper change. § May assist adult when undressing, dressing, and diapering. § Removes loose clothing (socks, hats, mittens). § Holds own cup when drinking. § Begins to use a spoon. § Respond positively and promptly when child indicates need (need for food, diaper change, blanket). § Provide safe finger foods for child to self feed. § Wash your hands and child’s hands frequently to help prevent the spread of colds and viruses. § Provide oral health care (brushing teeth and gums). § Encourage child to assist with daily personal care (pull down and pull up pants, brush teeth, and dress self). § Provide child-size eating utensils and cups; and provideopportunities for older child to make selections from foodsoffered and feed self. § Provide older babies with a consistent bedtime routine and schedule. § Model basic personal care routines. DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: HEALTH AND PERSONAL CARE DAILY LIVING SKILLS GOAL 22: CHILDREN PRACTICE BASIC PERSONAL CARE ROUTINES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Participate in meeting personal care needs. § Shows through gestures, expressions, body language, or words that child is about to urinate or have a bowel movement. § Feeds self with spoon, without assistance. § Washes hands, with assistance. § Demonstrates interest in changing clothes when wet ormuddy. § Participates in putting on shoes and socks. § Dresses and undresses completely, with assistance. § Uses personal care objects correctly and regularly, sometimes with assistance (drinks from open cup, brushes hair, brushes teeth). § Participates in sleeping routines such as getting and arrangingtheir bedtime comfort items. § Provide opportunities for child to participate daily in personal care (choose clothes to wear, use toothbrush, get dressed). § Provide opportunities for child to be responsible for personalbelongings (hanging up own jacket). § Provide easy on/off clothing to allow child a chance to practice personal care. § Read with child and practice other calming routines at bedtime. § Be aware of culturally-based personal care strategies used by families to promote interdependence. DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: HEALTH AND PERSONAL CARE DAILY LIVING SKILLS GOAL 22: CHILDREN PRACTICE BASIC PERSONAL CARE ROUTINES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Initiate and carry out personal care routines, with and without assistance. § Feeds self with fork and spoon; and spreads with a blunt knife, without assistance. § Washes hands independently, with frequency. § Gets a drink of water from an appropriate tap, without assistance. § Dresses and undresses, with minimal help. § Chooses own clothes to wear, when asked. § Puts shoes on, without assistance. § Decides, with few prompts, when to carry out self-help tasks (to wash hands when dirty and before meals). § Chooses to rest, when tired. § Participates in helping younger siblings with personal care routines. § Cares for toileting needs other than wiping. § Independently completes toileting activities, including wiping and flushing the toilet. § Offer plenty of guidance and opportunities for child to take care of self (put on own coat, clean up after spills and messy projects). § Give child enough time to take care of personal needs such aszipping and unzipping coat. § Help child recognize personal signs of fatigue and need for rest. § Provide opportunities for child to help younger siblings and otherchildren with appropriate personal care routines. § Demonstrate clear and consistent boundaries about harmful objects and situations (always put child in car safety seat when traveling in a vehicle). § Assist with brushing own teeth; adult may complete the brushingprocess. DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: HEALTH AND PERSONAL CARE DAILY LIVING SKILLS GOAL 22: CHILDREN PRACTICE BASIC PERSONAL CARE ROUTINES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months throughKindergarten Independently initiate and carry out personal care routines. § Uses fork, spoon, and (sometimes) a blunt table knife. § Pours milk or juice easily, with minimal spills. § Dresses and undresses in easy pull-on clothes, without assistance. § Ties single knot in shoelaces, with assistance. § Brushes and combs hair, with assistance. § Helps select clothes appropriate for the weather. § Talk with child about positive personal care routines. § Provide opportunities for child to practice personal care (dressing,brushing hair, brushing teeth). § As appropriate, provide opportunities for child to take responsibility for own special personal care (eyeglasses, hearing aids). § Provide opportunities to model care routines with dolls or other toys. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 23: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE PERSONAL HEALTH AND HYGIENE SKILLS. Domain 2: Physical Well-Being, Health, and Motor Development Sub-Domain: Health and Personal Care Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: HEALTH AND PERSONAL CARE DAILY LIVING SKILLS GOAL 23: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE PERSONAL HEALTH AND HYGIENE SKILLS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Infant reacts and responds to an adult performing hygienecare giving. § Responds to vocalizations during routines including diaper changing, eating, and dressing. § Indicates needs and wants such as hunger, fatigue, a soiled diaper, or discomfort. § Relaxes during bathing routines. § Respond positively and ensure that child receives regular checkups that include appropriate screenings, immunizations, preventive care, and information about child development. § Establish dental care for child. § Talk with child about what you’re doing when bathing, diapering, dressing, and cleaning. § Build routines around daily care giving activities. § Provide hand washing at appropriate times (hands can be washed with a damp paper towel and a drop of soap then wiped dry with a paper towel before and after eating, after diapering, etc.). § Make bath time enjoyable (provide safe bath toys, singsongs, tell stories). § Cover infant with blanket and/or appropriate clothing when in the sun. DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: HEALTH AND PERSONAL CARE DAILY LIVING SKILLS GOAL 23: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE PERSONAL HEALTH AND HYGIENE SKILLS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Anticipate, respond, andparticipate in basic hygienetasks, with assistance. § Indicates needs and wants such as hunger, fatigue, a soiled diaper, or discomfort. § Displays an awareness of hand washing routine and allows hands to be washed. § Enjoys bath time. § Vocalizes needs and wants such as hunger, fatigue, a soileddiaper, or discomfort. § Participates in hand washing routine. § Begins to brush gums and teeth, with assistance. § Participates in bath time routines. § Ensure child receives regular checkups that include appropriate screenings, immunizations, preventive care, and information about child development. § Provide on-going dental care for child. § Understand and recognize typical signs of illness or discomfort in child and respond appropriately, seeking assistance as needed (teething, earache, diaper rash, diarrhea). § Provide hand washing at appropriate times (hands can bewashed with a damp paper towel and a drop of soap then wiped drywith a paper towel before and after eating, after diapering, etc.). § Establish hygiene routines and model them (washing hands before eating, brushing teeth). § Provide necessary hand washing assistance (wash hands usingliquid soap, running water, and disposable towels). § Use sunscreen to protect skin from sunburn. DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: HEALTH AND PERSONAL CARE DAILY LIVING SKILLS GOAL 23: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE PERSONAL HEALTH AND HYGIENE SKILLS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Show limited awareness of personal health and hygiene skills. § Indicates wet or soiled diaper by pointing, vocalizing, or pulling at diaper, when prompted. § Shows interest in toilet training and begins to use toilet regularly by 36 months, with assistance. § Participates in bathroom routines. § Washes and dries hands at appropriate times, with minimalassistance (after diapering/toileting, before meals,after blowing nose). § Uses tissue to wipe nose, with assistance. § Communicates with caregiver when they are not feeling well. § Cooperates and assists with tooth brushing. § Ensure child receives regular checkups that include appropriate screenings, immunizations, preventive care, and information about development. § Provide on-going dental care for child. § Model and practice proper hand washing and drying. § Provide necessary hand washing assistance (wash hands usingliquid soap, running water, and disposable towels). § Support child’s efforts in toileting, brushing teeth, bathing. § Show child how to clean up after self; acknowledge child when he/she does clean up. § Talk with child about health rules (cover mouth when coughing; throw away soiled tissues in wastebasket). § Model words to describe symptoms of illness (I feel hot. My tummy hurts.). § Have a set of clean clothes always ready for child to change into. § Use sunscreen to protect skin from sunburn. DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: HEALTH AND PERSONAL CARE DAILY LIVING SKILLS GOAL 23: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE PERSONAL HEALTH AND HYGIENE SKILLS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Demonstrate independence inpersonal hygiene skills. § Takes care of own toileting needs. § Washes and dries hands before eating and after toileting, withoutassistance. § Cooperates and assists caregiver with tooth brushing. § Identifies health products (shampoo, toothpaste, soap). § Covers mouth and nose when coughing and sneezing with elbow or tissue. § Uses tissue to wipe own nose and throws tissue in wastebasket. § Recognizes and communicates when experiencing symptoms of illness. § Cooperates and participates in care for acute and chronic illness(takes medicine, with assistance). § Ensure child receives regular checkups that include appropriate screenings, immunizations, preventive care, and information about development. § Provide on-going dental care for child. § Establish hand washing routines (wash hands using liquid soap, running water, and disposable towels) for appropriate times throughout the day (on arrival, after handling pets, before and after eating, after toileting and blowing nose, after outdoor play). § Provide opportunities for child to select personal hygiene items forself and others (select own toothbrush, washcloth). § Make a place for child’s personal grooming. § Provide child with enough time to take care of personal hygiene. § Provide opportunities for child to interact with health care workers (dentist, nurse, health aide, doctor). § Use sunscreen to protect skin from sunburn. DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: HEALTH AND PERSONAL CARE DAILY LIVING SKILLS GOAL 23: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE PERSONAL HEALTH AND HYGIENE SKILLS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Initiate and independently carry out personal hygiene skills, with or without assistance. § Washes hands independently at appropriate times throughout the day. § Brushes teeth and attempts flossing, with supervision; and then allows assistance tocomplete the process. § Washes face, without assistance. § Covers mouth and nose when coughing and sneezing with elbow or tissue. § Demonstrates an awareness of routines for maintaining good health. § Ensure child receives regular checkups that include appropriate screenings, immunizations, preventive care, and information about child development. § Provide on-going dental care for child. § Encourage child to verbalize why personal hygiene is important. § Demonstrate and explain the importance of hygiene for goodhealth. § Establish hand washing routines (wash hands using liquid soap, running water, and disposable towels) during appropriate times throughout day (on arrival, after handling pets, before and after eating, after toileting and blowing nose, after outdoor play). § Use sunscreen to protect skin from sunburn. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 24: CHILDREN EAT A VARIETY OF NUTRITIOUS FOODS. Domain 2: Physical Well-Being, Health, and Motor Development Sub-Domain: Nutrition and Feeding Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: NUTRITION AND FEEDING NUTRITION GOAL 24: CHILDREN EAT A VARIETY OF NUTRITIOUS FOODS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Self-regulate food intake, and indicate hunger and fullness. § Breastfeeds, if appropriate for family preferences and circumstances. § Regulates the speed and intensity with which they eat. § Uses facial expressions and body movements to indicate feelings of hunger and fullness. § May experiment with tastes of pureed foods beginning at 6 months, with approval of thephysician. § Explores food with fingers. § Provide an environment that is supportive of breastfeeding (breastfeeding is recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics for a minimum of 1 year, when possible). § Plan feeding times and practices around the individual cultural andfeeding needs of the child (if breastfeeding, use of breast milk;or if bottle feeding, use of formula). § Follow child’s cues for when he/she is full or hungry. § Offer appropriate finger foods such as ready-to-eat cereals, soft or softened fruits, and vegetables. DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: NUTRITION AND FEEDING NUTRITION GOAL 24: CHILDREN EAT A VARIETY OF NUTRITIOUS FOODS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Begin eating soft and semi- solid foods; feed self different foods including finger foods; and indicate likes and dislikes of flavors and textures, hunger, and fullness with words and actions. § Consumes a variety of foods. § Explores food with fingers. § Regulates the speed and intensity with which they eat § Uses facial expressions and body movements to indicate feelings of hunger and fullness. § Shows personal preferences. § Begins to use fork and spoon, although not always withaccuracy. § Increases food vocabulary. § Offer child a variety of foods and nutrients. § Treat meal times as an opportunity to help child enjoyfood and become independent in feeding. § Use a daily sheet for parents and caregivers to communicate with each other and provide a written record of what and how much the child eats at home and the center. § Communicate with parents, grandparents, cooks, andcaregivers about food allergies to provide a safe food environmentfor child. § Avoid serving choking hazards (raisins; grapes; popcorn; hot dogs; hard candies; and other small, hard, round foods). § Model nutritious eating habits. § Provide child-sized utensils. DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: NUTRITION AND FEEDING NUTRITION GOAL 24: CHILDREN EAT A VARIETY OF NUTRITIOUS FOODS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Choose how much food to eat. Participate in mealtime routines, with support. § Expands recognition and eats a variety of foods. § Distinguishes between food and non-food items. § Makes personal food choices among options. § Explores new foods when offered. § Talks about being hungry or full. § Uses cup to drink beverages. § Begins using serving utensils. § Begins to pass and receive food in serving containers. § Uses fork and spoon, with limited accuracy, but continues to use fingers often. § Establish regular meal and snack times in daily schedules. § Prepare and provide a variety of nutritious snacks and meals fromchild’s own cultural background and other cultures. § Serve meals that include foods with a variety of textures, shapes, temperatures, sizes, and colors. § Offer beverages in cups (1% or 2% milk, 100% juice, or water). § Provide child-sized utensils. § Provide child-sized serving utensils that help child to servechild-sized portions. § Provide adequate space for each child to pass, serve, pour, and eat. § Prepare and present food with consideration for child’s physical skills for passing and servingthemselves. § Sit down to supervise child before food is passed. § Talk with child about how food and water help us to be healthy. § Offer food at least every 3 hours so that child’s hunger does not overwhelm their ability to self- regulate food intake. § Link new foods to familiar foods describing taste and textures. § When adding a food that is new to a child’s menu, include other foods that are familiar to the child. § Encourage child to drink plenty of water throughout the day. § Develop a plan for cooperating with physician-prescribed diets (allergies, diabetes). § If child has food allergies, talk with him/her about healthful food choices that fit his/her needs. § Avoid serving choking hazards (raisins; grapes; popcorn; hot dogs; hard candies; and othersmall, hard, round, foods). DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: NUTRITION AND FEEDING NUTRITION GOAL 24: CHILDREN EAT A VARIETY OF NUTRITIOUS FOODS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Participate in mealtime routines with increasing independence and becomemore consistent at usingutensils to eat and serveself. Eat a variety of foods andlearn about food throughobservation and modelingduring mealtimes. § Accepts a greater variety of foods, displays greater acceptance of textures and flavors. § Expresses food preferences using increasingly descriptivevocabulary. § Uses spoon and fork, but continues to use fingers for efficiency. § Begins to have accuracy with a knife for spreading soft foods such as butter or jelly. § Knows and uses routines for passing, serving, cleaning up spills, and clearing their place after meals. § Uses serving utensils to self- serve food, with increasing accuracy. § Passes food at the table and takes appropriate-sized portions, or participates in other culturally- specific family serving styles. § Expresses hunger and fullness using words such as “I’m hungry” or “My tummy is full.” § Begins to identify sources of food. § Serve meals that include foods with a variety of textures, shapes, temperatures, sizes, and colors. § Talk with child about food choices in relation to allergies, religion, culture, family choices, andoverall health. § Offer food at least every 3 hours so that child’s hunger does not overwhelm their ability to self- regulate food intake. § Establish the expectation, for the child, to join with family or groupat mealtime. § Resist forcing child to eat. § Provide child-sized utensils. § Provide child-sized serving utensils that help child to serve child-sized portions. § Provide adequate space for each child to pass, serve, pour, andeat. § Provide opportunities for child to serve themselves from common bowls and pitchers. § Involve child in planting, growing, and harvesting a vegetable garden. § Provide opportunities for child to help prepare meals and snacks. § Talk about food and nutrition concepts including texture, vocabulary, appearance, andpreferences during meal times. § Avoid serving choking hazards (raisins; grapes; popcorn; hot dogs; hard candies; and other small, hard, round foods). § Provide directions to prevent choking (keep all four chair legson the floor, avoid talking or laughing with food in mouth, takesmall bites, and finish chewing food before leaving the table). DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: NUTRITION AND FEEDING NUTRITION GOAL 24: CHILDREN EAT A VARIETY OF NUTRITIOUS FOODS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Are curious and enthusiastic about foods and eating. Take increasingly more responsibility for eating and food choices. § Chooses from a variety of foods. § States food preferences. § Provides simple explanations for own and others’ food allergies. § Tries most new foods. § Engage child in preparing, serving, and eating a variety of foods. § Talk with child about why certain foods are more nutritious than others (fruit is more nutritious thancandy). § Give child opportunities to provide input on food and menus. § Provide family-style dining. § Model healthy eating habits. § Acknowledge child’s differences and preferences for food, but do not compare children’s eatingcharacteristics. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 25: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT AND AVOID HARMFUL OBJECTS AND SITUATIONS. Domain 2: Physical Well-Being, Health, and Motor Development Sub-Domain: Safety Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SAFETY SAFE PRACTICES GOAL 25: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT AND AVOID HARMFUL OBJECTS AND SITUATIONS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Show discomfort oranxiousness in stressfulsituations. § Shows recognition of the differences between primary caregivers and strangers. § Demonstrates anxiety or exhibits disengagement cues when the child has undergone prolonged,painful, or stressful situations (medical procedures, chaoticenvironments). § Shows anxiety of the difference between primary caregivers and strangers. § Provide constant close adult supervision and guidance. § Dress child appropriately for the weather conditions. § Put infant to sleep on his/her back. § Provide a safe, child-proof environment (keep choking hazards and poisons out of child’sreach, cover electrical outlets). § Understand the risk factors and signs of child abuse and neglect, and respond appropriately. § Protect from exposure to violence, television, excessive noise, etc. DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SAFETY SAFE PRACTICES GOAL 25: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT AND AVOID HARMFUL OBJECTS AND SITUATIONS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Rely on adults to maintain safe environment and respond to adult indicators of unsafe or dangerous situations. §Begins to respond to cues from caregivers about warnings of danger. §Begins to react when caregiver says, “no,” but may need assistance to stop unsafebehavior. §Respond to cues from caregivers about warnings of danger. §Reacts when caregiver says, “no,” but may need assistance tostop unsafe behavior. §Model vocabulary that indicates danger. §Demonstrate clear and consistent boundaries about harmful objectsand situations (always use car safety seats, life jackets, andbicycle helmets when traveling). §Explain when things are hot and too hot to safely touch; cold and too cold to safely touch. §Prepare food to avoid choking hazards. DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SAFETY SAFE PRACTICES GOAL 25: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT AND AVOID HARMFUL OBJECTS AND SITUATIONS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Begin to develop an awareness of harmful objects and situations and respond,with assistance. § Begins to avoid dangers (blowing on hot food, hot stoves, sharp knives), but cannot be relied on to keep self safe. § Knows to hold caregiver’s hand when walking in public places. § Communicates to adult when someone hurts or makes them feel bad. § Provide constant close adult supervision and guidance. § Use poison symbols in classroom and at home, and teach childwhat they mean. § Talk with child about harmful objects and substances. § Teach child to tell an adult if they are afraid, have been hurt by anadult or another child, or see something that is not safe. § Keep guns unloaded, use safety locks, and store in a locked cabinet away from children. § Introduce child to safety personnel and places (firefighters,fire stations; health clinics, doctors, and hospitals). § Teach child that they are strong and capable and can count on you to keep them safe. § Demonstrate clear and consistent boundaries about harmful objectsand situations (always put child in car safety seat when traveling in avehicle). § Assist child in dressing appropriately and check clothing for hazards. DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SAFETY SAFE PRACTICES GOAL 25: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT AND AVOID HARMFUL OBJECTS AND SITUATIONS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Demonstrate an awareness and understanding of harmful objects and situations and respond, with and without assistance. § Communicates to peers and adults when seeing dangerous behaviors (throwing rocks on the playground). § Carries scissors and pencils with points down to avoid accidents. § Looks both ways before crossing street or road, and knows to cross with adult assistance. § Recognizes danger and poison symbols and avoids those objectsor areas. § Does not touch or take medicine, without adult assistance; but knows that medicine can improve health, when used properly. § Understands the difference between safe touch and unsafetouch. § Identifies appropriate clothing and sunscreen for various weather conditions. § Recognizes safety issues with guns, fire, water, and strangers. § Provide constant close adult supervision and guidance. § Participate in discussions with firefighters about fires and safetyprecautions. § Read stories in which children face harmful situations and discuss how they deal with them. § Provide puppets, role-play materials, and songs/rhymes that help child focus on who and whatcan be trusted. § Be vigilant about appropriate clothing and skin protection. § Provide role-playing situations for child to practice personal safety. § Demonstrate clear and consistent boundaries about harmful objects and situations (always put child in car safety seat, helmets for bikes). § Keep guns unloaded, use safety locks, and store in a lockedcabinet away from children. § Become familiar with the risk factors and signs of child abuse and neglect. § Explain 911, and show child how to dial 911. DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SAFETY SAFE PRACTICES GOAL 25: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT AND AVOID HARMFUL OBJECTS AND SITUATIONS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Explain harmful objects and situations and respond independently most of the time. § Explains when not to accept rides, food, or money from strangers. § Understands that some practices may be personally dangerous (smoking, drinking alcohol,playing with matches, contact with blood, playing near ditches). § Identifies adults who can assist in dangerous situations (parents, teachers, police officers). § Recognizes personal privacy in relation to their body. § Though child can explain safety procedures, they may not always do what is safe. Provide constant close adult supervision and guidance. § Participate with child in community health and safety programs (local and tribal clinics,dentist, doctor, veterinarian, firefighter, police officer). § Talk with child about harmful situations and alternative strategies for dealing with them. § Show child difference between candy and pills and food and non-food items (drug abuse concerns). § Take neighborhood walks with child and look at and discuss potentially dangerous situations. § Explain safety rules for privacy in relation to their body. § Teach child when and how to dial 911. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 26: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS AND UNDERSTANDING OF SAFETY RULES. Domain 2: Physical Well-Being, Health, and Motor Development Sub-Domain: Safety Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SAFETY RULES AND REGULATIONS GOAL 26: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS AND UNDERSTANDING OF SAFETY RULES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through8 Months § Provide a safe child-proof environment (cover electrical outlets, keep poisons and items that might cause choking out of child’s reach). Ensure use of age- and weight-appropriate car safety seat when riding in vehicles. § Provide appropriate use of safety equipment (car seat, bike helmet, life jacket). DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SAFETY RULES AND REGULATIONS GOAL 26: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS AND UNDERSTANDING OF SAFETY RULES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months §Reacts and responds to caregiver’s words or actions; can be distracted from unsafe behavior with words, physical prompts, or signal from adult, but requires constant supervision and guidance (stops unsafe activity when told to “stop”). §Follows some consistently set rules and routines. §Watches familiar adult for appropriate reaction. §Provide a safe child-proof environment (cover electrical outlets, keep poisons and items that might cause choking out of child’s reach). Ensure use of age- and weight-appropriate car safety seat when riding in vehicles. §Model appropriate use of safety equipment (always wear a seatbelt, bike helmet, life jacket). DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SAFETY RULES AND REGULATIONS GOAL 26: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS AND UNDERSTANDING OF SAFETY RULES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Develop an awareness of safety rules and respond to safety rules, with assistance. § Displays recognition of the rules, though may not always follow them. § Anticipates consequences for not following rules. § Pays attention to safety instructions, with assistance (cooperates when told, “I need to hold your hand when we cross the street.”). §    Verbally offers simple rules (hot, no-no, no running inside). §    Talk about the importance of wearing helmets while riding a tricycle; provide helmets for all people riding bikes, snowmobiles, skiing, 4-wheelers, etc. § Use teachable moments to demonstrate safety in the community (traffic, animals,staying with the group). § Comment descriptively when child behaves safely. § Demonstrate, explain, and provide opportunities for child topractice safety around bodies of water (lakes, oceans, rivers,ditches). § Provide frequent reminders about safety rules (“You should hold an adult’s hand when you walk in a parking lot.”). DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SAFETY RULES AND REGULATIONS GOAL 26: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS AND UNDERSTANDING OF SAFETY RULES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Follow safety rules, with and without assistance. § Understands and anticipates the consequences of not following rules. § Identifies safety signs posted indoors and outdoors. §    Follows emergency drill instructions (fire, earthquake, bomb, lockdown). § Follows basic safety rules, with assistance (bus, bicycle, boat, plane, playground, crossing thestreet, stranger awareness, using sidewalk). § Initiates getting buckled into age- and weight-appropriate car safety seats in vehicles. § Puts on or asks for helmet before riding a bicycle or other wheeledtoy. § Shows an interest in participating in setting rules for indoor and outdoor play in a classroom setting. § Discuss personal safety rules with child (holding hands in crowds, wearing a personal flotation device, wearing a bike helmet). § Provide basic safety equipment for all of child’s activities. § Model safe practices (personal floatation, helmets, fire safety). § Discuss safety rules regarding recreation, wilderness, and animalsafety (guns, motor craft, matches, propane, and watersafety). § Talk with child about fire safety (“Tell an adult if you find matches and lighters.”). § Provide opportunities for child to practice appropriate emergency drills (fire, earthquake, bomb). § Show and tell child how to call 911 in an emergency situation. § Discuss different people child can ask for help in an emergency situation (police officer, firefighter,neighbor). § Provide opportunities for child to learn and practice water safety. § Discuss traffic safety signs as they travel in motor vehicles whileon field trips. § Provide facsimiles of stops signs, railroad signs, etc., for use in play situations. § Encourage participation in setting rules for the classroom. DOMAIN 2: PHYSICAL WELL-BEING, HEALTH, AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SAFETY RULES AND REGULATIONS GOAL 26: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS AND UNDERSTANDING OF SAFETY RULES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months throughKindergarten Verbalize and demonstrate application of safety rules and respond independently most of the time. § Tells and follows safety rules consistently. § Explains why emergency drills are important. § Explains how to get help in emergency situations (calling 911, finding a police officer or responsible adult). § Demonstrates safety rules and engages in dramatic play (e.g., “Keep your fingers away from thehot stove so you do not get hurt.”). § Participates in setting rules for indoor and outdoor play in a classroom setting. § Responds quickly to adult directives about safety. § Seeks adult help in unsafe situations. § Discuss and demonstrate personal safety rules with child (holding hands in crowds, wearing a personal floatation device, wearing a bike helmet). § Discuss safety rules regarding recreation, wilderness, and animal safety (guns, motor craft,matches, propane, and water safety) § Talk with child about fire safety (“Tell an adult if you find matches and lighters.”). § Practice a fire/emergency exit plan for your home and where tomeet after exiting. § Show and tell child how to call 911 in an emergency situation. § Identify different people child can ask for help in an emergencysituation (police officer, neighbor, emergency medical technician,librarian, bus driver). § Provide opportunities for child to observe traffic safety rules as they travel in motor vehicles and public transportation. § Discuss traffic safety signs as they travel in motor vehicles whileon field trips. § Involve children in setting safety rules for classroom setting. § Provide supervision for child; preferably sight and soundsupervision. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTION By nature, humans are social creatures. Throughout all phases of life, people interact with one another. Children learn to be around others as they construct knowledge about the world through social interaction. Healthy children in all cultures form early attachmentswith significant adults. These relationships form the foundation for later emotional, social, language, and cognitive development. Even though emotions are a universal human phenomenon and social behavior is observed constantly in the world around us, social and emotional development is challenging to define and measure. The challenges stem from: §the broad range of behaviors and concepts included within social and emotional development; §the difficulty of assessing processes that are primarily internal, and therefore, not always visible processes; and §social and emotional variability according to culture and situations. Social and emotional development serves as the foundation for relationships and interactions that give meaning to a child’s experiences in the home, at school, and in the larger community. Brain research consistently supports the importance of the first five years as the critical years for developing foundational social and emotional skills. RATIONALE Social and emotional development is a predictor of a child’s overall success in school and in life. Relationships play a central role in: §fostering a child’s social and emotional well-being, §providing a sense of stability and belonging, and §allowing a child to make the most of learning opportunities. Successful social and emotional development requires secure, consistent, responsive, and physically and emotionally nurturing relationships. With guidance and through playful interactions, children develop skills to cooperate, negotiate, lead and follow, be a friend, and express their feelings in a socially and culturally acceptable manner. These skills include the ability to read body language, communicate non-verbally, and be sensitive to others’ feelings. Forming warm, responsive bonds and intimacy with others offers security to children, as well as protecting them emotionally fromnegative effects associated with poverty, violence in the home or community, parental depression, and other stressors that endangermental health and social adjustment. GENERAL DEFINITION Social and emotional development encompasses a child’s ability to interact effectively with adults and children. Social development and emotional development are closely interrelated skills in that each is acquired in a relatively predictable sequence. For example, achild establishes warm and responsive interactions with adults (social development) before he/she develops emotional skills such asself-control. These skills typically precede the development of relationships with peers and groups. SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Young children’s ability to form and sustain social relationships with adults and other children is at the heart of their social development. A child’s social relationships with adults can be understood in terms of the child’s ability to trust and interact easily with adults, as well as the ability to recognize adult roles. A child looks to adults for guidance, cues, and information on how to act, think, and feel. As children develop, the ability to establish relationships with peers influences how they view themselves and the world. Building friendships assists a child to cooperate, form and maintain relationships, and negotiate. Meaningful play experiences offer the child key opportunities to practice social skills of cooperating, compromising, and taking turns. Cooperation with peers implies an understanding of others’ rights and the ability to balance one’s own needs with those of others. A child can develop successful social relationships while recognizing and appreciating similarities and differences in other people, as well as learn to interact comfortably with children and adults who may have different characteristics, cultures, and life experiences. Positive social relationships are formed and maintained when a child develops adaptive social behavior. The effects of different behaviors are understood as he/she adapts to diverse settings and participates positively in group activities. Finally, social competence is demonstrated when a child shows empathy when understanding, respecting, and showing sensitivity toward other children. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT A child’s ability to recognize and express feelings and to understand and respond to the emotions of others provides him/her with important emotional skills. Central to the understanding of emotional development is the overall perception of self; including traits, feelings, abilities, motives, and social roles. As a child acquires a self-concept, he/she begins to answer the question: “Who am I?” Another aspect of emotional development is self-efficacy, which is the belief that one can succeed in accomplishing what one sets out to do. Self-efficacy creates feelings of self-confidence, competence, and positive emotions that a child must have to be successful in learning tasks at home and at school. Emotional development includes acknowledging emotions and the ability to manage or regulate them in both personal and socialcontexts. A child’s ability to identify and label his/her emotions and effectively express the range of feelings is another importantaspect of emotional well-being. Emotional expression includes expressing primary emotions (joy, anger, fear), emotions linked tosensory stimulation (disgust, delight, horror), and self-appraisal emotions (pride, satisfaction, shame, guilt). SUPPORTING INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, LANGUAGE, AND DIVERSITY Children’s social identity is shaped by many factors including gender, race, cultural and family background and values, language, religion, abilities, life experiences and circumstances, and temperamental qualities and personality. Family and cultural stories helpchildren build identities. The values and practices of each child’s family, peers, community, and culture shape the feelings,knowledge, and expectations that influence social and emotional development. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 27: CHILDREN TRUST, INTERACT WITH, AND SEEK ASSISTANCE FROM ADULTS. Domain 3: Social and Emotional Development Sub-Domain: Social Development Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten First, Second, and Third Grades DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT INTERACTION WITH ADULTS GOAL 27: CHILDREN TRUST, INTERACT WITH, AND SEEK ASSISTANCE FROM ADULTS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Develop secure primary attachments. § Responds to the caregiver’s attempts to interact. § Cries, makes sounds, or uses body movements to signalcaregiver for assistance, attention, or the need for comfort. § Turns toward sight, sound, and smell of mother as opposed to an unfamiliar adult. § Shows preference for primary caregivers. § Establishes an attachment with the primary caregiver and other consistent adults in the child’s life. § Is quieted by or seeks comfort by an attachment figure when crying. § Lifts arms to be picked up by an adult. § Establishes and maintains interactions with caregivers. § Shows preference for familiar adults through smiling and gestures. § Gestures and babbles back and forth with caregiver. § Uses body movements to initiate social interactions (pats adult’s face). § Looks for caregivers’ response in uncertain situations. § Follows caregiver’s gaze to look at toy. § Gives cues to initiate and maintain interaction with thecaregiver by the end of the period. § Respond consistently and promptly to child’s cries and needs for comfort, reassurance, and to celebrate accomplishments. Develop consistent daily routines; following the child’s lead around care giving needs (when is the child usually hungry, tired, alert). § Provide a child-safe environment (free of hazards associated with dangerous toys or materials, freeof violence, equipped with adequate shelter/housing, food,clothing). § Show respect for child and everyone in his/her environment. § Talk to, smile at, cuddle with; and allow infant time to respond toyou. § Provide words to the infant’s expression of emotion (hungry, peaceful, happy, sad, sleepy). DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT INTERACTION WITH ADULTS GOAL 27: CHILDREN TRUST, INTERACT WITH, AND SEEK ASSISTANCE FROM ADULTS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Develop sense of self inrelation to familiar adults. § Gives cues to initiate and maintain interaction with the caregiver. § Explores environment, with support. § Enjoys solitary play (playing alone with books or toys for a few minutes). § Distinguishes between familiar and unfamiliar adults. § Seeks support and security with familiar adults. § May exhibit separation reaction by crying when caregiver is not insight or clinging to caregiver in the presence of strangers (separationanxiety increases over time and then diminishes). § Cries out or follows caregiver when he/she leaves the room. § May seek comfort from a favorite blanket or toy especially when a favored caregiver is absent. § Turns excitedly and lifts arms to a favored adult on reunion after an absence. § Calms quickly after primary caregiver returns. § May display anxiety when an unfamiliar adult gets too close. § Reconnects with the caregiver by making eye contact with him/her from time to time. § Plays confidently when caregiver is in the room, but runs or crawls to him/her when frightened. § Seeks assistance and attention from caregiver using verbal cues,words, sounds, or body movements. § Shows awareness of feelings displayed by others by matching the facial expressions and smiling responsively. § Prepare child for transitions (e.g., “I’ll be right back,” when taking a break. “I’m going to fix lunch. What do you want to play with while I make your lunch.” “It’s almost time to pick up.”). § Provide space and materials for child to engage in play on their own. Include indoor and outdoorplay time. § Maintain consistent and responsive care giving for the child (minimum transitions between teachers). § Help review experiences so that the memories can be integratedinto their self-narratives by describing the environment. § Create and keep alive good, warm, and joyful memories by talking about what happened during the day. § Establish predictable family traditions. § Respond consistently and promptly to child’s cries and needs for comfort, reassurance, and to celebrate accomplishments. Provide opportunities for child to engage in games such as “Patty-Cake” and “Peek-a-Boo.” Allow time for child to explore and practice self- help skills. § Cooperates with caregivers in dressing, eating, and playing. § Looks for caregivers’ response in uncertain situations or with inappropriate behavior. § Begins to recognize and respond to the emotional cues of self and others. § Begins to take care of needs by doing things such as feeding selfor expressing a desire to take off own shoes. § Tests abilities and boundaries with familiar adults by the end of the period. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT INTERACTION WITH ADULTS GOAL 27: CHILDREN TRUST, INTERACT WITH, AND SEEK ASSISTANCE FROM ADULTS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Develop a growing sense ofautonomy from familiar adults. § Calls to caregiver from across the room to make sure he/she is paying attention. § Feels comfortable when playing away from primary caregiver, but cries out or seeks familiar adultwhen they fall down. § Talks about transitions (e.g., “Mama goes to work.” “It’s time for snack time, right?”). § Shows skillful ways to keep parent/caregiver with them (gestures for one more hug whenparent is leaving for work, or asks parent to help with one moretask). § Tests own abilities and the boundaries with familiar adults. Resists transitions or finds ways to change transitions (bring grandma’s favorite book to her to see if she will read it again after she says, “We are all done reading, and it is time for a nap.”). § Imitates adult activities (pretends to cook or read next to an adultwho is reading). § Initiates interactions and plays with adults. § Responds appropriately to adults’ verbal greetings. § Seeks adult assistance with challenges. § Will play longer independently with toys or outside. § May insist on dressing, eating or fixing a toy without help; even if the child struggles. § Checks periodically with caregiver for help or reassurance when playing by self or withpeers. § Knows some rules and limits, but will test them. § Starts activity after a caregiver § Listen with interest to what child says and elaborate and expand on their thoughts or ideas. § Offer choices within appropriate limits. § Helps child manage feelings of distress and separation by allowing the child to feel and label emotions (e.g., “I can see you’re sad that mom left. Can I hold you?”). § Responds to child’s emotional and physical needs, and verbaland non-verbal communications. § Show empathy and understanding to child, and help child identify feelings and situations (“You are really mad at him! Let’s find a way for you to have a turn with the ball.”). § Take opportunities to help child distinguish from self and other(e.g., “Here is my nose.” “Where is your nose?”). § Provide opportunities for child to engage in brief play and activities on their own. § Prepare child for transitions with cues (e.g., “It’s almost time to goinside.” “We have just enough time to finish this puzzle beforeit’s time to clean up.”). § Allow more time and patience for child to dress independently and provide easy-to-get-on clothing (elastic waste band, larger sized shirts, and socks without heels). § Offer opportunities for child to pass bowls to other children and adults at mealtime, with adultassistance. makes suggestions (uses adult’s suggestions to find missing pieces to a toy, or items needed for an art activity). § Begins to follow and tell basic safety guidelines and requirements (hot – don’t touch). DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT INTERACTION WITH ADULTS GOAL 27: CHILDREN TRUST, INTERACT WITH, AND SEEK ASSISTANCE FROM ADULTS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Show confidence in seeking assistance from familiar adults. § In familiar settings, separates, with assistance from significant adults, without undue anxiety (younger child may need extra help). § Expresses affection for significant adults. § Approaches adults for assistance and offers to assist adults. § Carries out actions to please adults, at times. § Tells feelings about adults (e.g., “I love Grandpa!”). § Plays independently, but seeks comfort from familiar adults when distressed. § Asks questions of adults, as needed, to obtain information. § Follows caregiver’s guidance for appropriate behavior in different environments. § Identifies known safety roles and distinguishes between trusted and unknown adults (police officers, fire fighters). § Brings simple problem situations to adult’s attention. § Works independently and asks for help only when necessary. § Works cooperatively with an adult to plan and organize activities andsolve problems. § Model, explain, and provide opportunities for child to interact appropriately and be respectful of adults. § Communicate expectations clearly by modeling and showingthe child how to respond. § Show respect for child’s choices and attempts at solving problems (trade with child). § Offer support and social cues for child who is working to establish peer relationships. § Provide one-on-one time when a child can confide in a care provider/teacher daily. § Provide opportunities for child to help and participate in routinessuch as “picking up.” § Offer increasing choices within safe boundaries. § Provide activities that encourage child to interact with an adult suchas setting up the indoor and outdoor environments (planningand cooperation). DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT INTERACTION WITH ADULTS GOAL 27: CHILDREN TRUST, INTERACT WITH, AND SEEK ASSISTANCE FROM ADULTS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Use strategies to interact with familiar adults in a variety of situations. § Shows confidence and positive feelings about relationships with significant adults in addition to primary caregivers (teachers, next door neighbors, custodian, bus driver). § Plays independently, but seeks comfort from adults whendistressed. § Uses words to express needs and negotiates with adults. § Seeks adult assistance to resolve conflict or safety concerns. § Asks questions and checks with an adult before deviating from rules and routines. § Confides in at least one adult. § Demonstrates knowledge of culturally-specific communication styles and their appropriate uses. § Offer child suggestions for overcoming challenges when he/she asks for assistance. § When a bias situation occurs, use the experience to discuss solutions and alternatives. § Offer opportunities for the child to talk about and be listened to around emotional issues; individually with trusted adults § Model acceptance of individual differences. § Specifically identify trusted members of the community (what their role is). § Supports child’s social negotiations. § Engage in meaningful conversations with child, following child’s cues. § Offers increasing choices and independence within safe boundaries. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT INTERACTION WITH ADULTS GOAL 27: CHILDREN TRUST, INTERACT WITH, AND SEEK ASSISTANCE FROM ADULTS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies First, Second, and Third Grades Interact with familiar andunfamiliar adults in a variety ofsettings. § Attends to facial cues, tone of voice, and uses situational and past experiences to determine how to interact with or ask assistance from adults. § Seeks help, when needed, before attempting a new task. § Becomes responsible and independent to get needs met. § Distinguishes ability, effort, and luck in attributions for successand failure. § Can wait for adult’s attention. § Sees teachers and adults outside of family as trusted resources. § May deliberately seek adult approval. § Seeks adults for arbitration. § Evaluates own achievements against peers and perceived teacher’s expectations. § Initiates independent social interactions and responds to negative and positive interactionswith adults, by the end of the period. § Provide stable environment and routines throughout the day. § Offer opportunities to solve social conflicts without direct adultsupport. § Acknowledge a child’s pain, fear, and anxiety if the child is having difficult times with trusted adults (divorcing parents, economic trauma, or a loss). § Support child’s ability to explore new concepts, accept different expectations, and view self as alearner. § Acknowledge cultural values and beliefs about educators and education. § Communicate frequently with the child’s family to support them in the child’s education and learning. § Support various learning styles and rates of learning. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 28: CHILDREN DEVELOP FRIENDSHIPS WITH PEERS. Domain 3: Social and Emotional Development Sub-Domain: Social Development Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten First, Second, and Third Grades DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT INTERACTIONS WITH PEERS GOAL 28: CHILDREN DEVELOP FRIENDSHIPS WITH PEERS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Shows interest in babies and other children. § Initially responds and prefers caregiver’s face and voice. § Gazes and smiles spontaneously at other children. § Shows enjoyment in interactions with other children by kicking and reaching, and using gestures, facial expressions, and vocalizations. § Responds verbally when interacting with peers (laughing orbabbling). § Shows interest in other children and visually tracks their actions. § Observes other children and imitates their sounds, actions, andmotions. § Becomes sad or cries when other children are crying. § Begins to show awareness of feelings displayed by others bymatching facial expressions and smiling responsively. § Provide opportunities for child to be around other children. § Model positive response to a child’s sounds, cries, and moodswith verbal and facial expressions. § Respectfully imitate child while playing in give and take interactions and describe the interactions to other children in the setting. § Make different facial expressions and allow time for the child tomimic or respond to the expression (happy, sad, excited,surprised). § Talk about the child’s expression of emotion (hungry, sad, sleepy), as you provide care. § Point out features and behaviors of babies and older children as the infant looks at or hears them. § Post pictures of babies and their families in the childcare program classroom. Talk about the children in the pictures. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT INTERACTIONS WITH PEERS GOAL 28: CHILDREN DEVELOP FRIENDSHIPS WITH PEERS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Begins to show interest in peers. § Initially engages in self play. § Reaches out to and engages momentarily with other children. § Pats/touches child nearby. § Pokes or reaches at other children to explore. § Pushes toys toward another child. § Hands toys to other children. § Takes objects from other children. § Observes other children and mimics their behavior (sees another child banging a toy andthey begin to bang their toy). § Babble, make sounds toward, and respond to other babies and older children (talking, smiling, babbling). § Shows interest when other children are crying, and tries tohelp (brings child a toy) or begins to cry. § Engages in parallel play or briefly plays beside other children. § Verbally acknowledge a child’s feelings so that peers are aware of each others’ feelings (e.g., “Sam looks sad. Let’s go help him.”). § Provide supported opportunities for child to play and interact with other children (keep closeproximity to children at play to help with language, sharing, andplaying together). § Play turn-taking games with child (Peek-a-Boo). § Provide active songs and finger plays with children in small groups(Three Little Monkeys, Three Little Ducks). § Provide opportunities for interactions near other children (rolling the ball or running together). DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT INTERACTIONS WITH PEERS GOAL 28: CHILDREN DEVELOP FRIENDSHIPS WITH PEERS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Engage in play with peers. § Plays side-by-side with another child. § Observes and imitates another child’s behavior or activity. § Initiates social interaction with peers (brings toys to child, moves close to child, or takes a child’s toy). § Shows enthusiasm about the company of other children. § Spontaneously shows preference for familiar playmates. § Responds verbally when interacting with peers (talking orsigning). § Will ask about other children (e.g., “Where’s Rafael?”). § Begins to understand how to take turns during play with peers, withconsiderable assistance. § Gives up and keeps objects during playful interactions with peers, with assistance. § Mimics other children’s behaviors or movements. § Engages in brief social games (rolling the ball, Ring Around the Rosy). § Help children communicate with others when negotiating toys, space, and feelings by providing words and explanations and expressing empathy for both children. § Provide opportunities to engage in open-ended play with otherchildren (dramatic play and free play). § Have several duplicates of desired toys/props. § Offer a few toys that can be played with by two or more children at one time. § Support child if he/she plays with or discusses imaginary friends. § Provide books, toys, and materials that show children from many settings, genders, cultures,and races. § Facilitate play and communication among children of different ability levels, and linguistic and cultural backgrounds. § Provide opportunity for children to engage in interactive games (rolling the ball, give-and-take,follow the leader). DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT INTERACTIONS WITH PEERS GOAL 28: CHILDREN DEVELOP FRIENDSHIPS WITH PEERS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Engage in mutual social play that involves cooperation and shared purpose. § Plays beside and interacts with peers. § Sometimes share toys with other children as they play. § Shows enjoyment in playing with other children. § Engages with other children in play involving a common idea (dramatic play, block building). § Begins to show preference for particular playmate. § Tries a variety of strategies to engage a peer. § Separates willingly from adults to play with friends. § Has at least one other friend. § Initiates conversations with other children; asks questions and responds. § Makes decisions with other children, with adult prompts as needed (making rules). § Can wait briefly for a turn when playing with other children. § Leads or participates in planning cooperative play with others. § Uses play as a vehicle to build relationships and develops an appreciation for their own ability and accomplishments. § Provide opportunities for child to engage in a variety of play activities with other children (dramatic play, art projects, block building, free play outside, and dance class). § Read books, flannel stories, etc. about children in cooperativesituations and successful conflict resolution, § Help child join other children in ongoing play. § Engage child in conversations with another child. § Support the child who is nonverbal with sign language, photos, and other visual supports for communication. § As appropriate, provide opportunities and support forfamilies and children to explain a disability to other children in aclass or in a small group. § Cooperate with child and others in daily tasks. § Demonstrate and explain how to be inclusive based on gender,culture, language, and abilities. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT INTERACTIONS WITH PEERS GOAL 28: CHILDREN DEVELOP FRIENDSHIPS WITH PEERS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months throughKindergarten Engage in cooperative interaction with peers. § Gives social support to others (offers to help a peer who cannot find his/her toy). § Have friends in different settings (neighborhood, school, extended family). § Maintains ongoing friendship with at least one peer. § Carries on conversations with peers. § Sustains interactions by cooperating, helping, sharing, and suggesting new ideas for play. § Completes simple projects with other children. § Sets goals with other children for play and projects. § Provide opportunities for child to initiate play in small groups in which each child has a specific role and responsibility. § Actively address bullying behavior or child’s attempt toexclude others. § Support conflict resolution and rule negotiation. § Support children as they create play themes and ideas. § Model positive, social, problem- solving skills. § Promote acceptance of linguistic, cultural, individual differences, and other forms of respect. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT INTERACTIONS WITH PEERS GOAL 28: CHILDREN DEVELOP FRIENDSHIPS WITH PEERS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies First, Second, and Third Grades Initially are aware of andrespond to others’ needs. Useunderstanding of others’ needsto help with positive interactionwith other children by the endof the period. § Develops social structure with peers on the basis of proximity (neighborhood, classroom). § Develops social structures with peers on the basis of gender, ethnicity, and popularity. § Develops a strong sense of belonging to a peer group. § Creates a social structure of leaders and followers. § Uses codes to identify informal groups (dress, vocabulary, activities, interests). § Develops aggression and hostility within informal peer groups and outside of the informal groups. § Understands that acceptance from peers may be related to likability (viewed by peers as a worthy social partner). § Intervene non-judgmentally and early when negative behaviors are developing. Allow children time to solve social dilemmas. § Provide opportunities for all children to be leaders andfollowers in a safe, structured environment. § Coach, model, and reinforce positive social skills that can improve peer relations. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 29: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE POSITIVE NEGOTIATION SKILLS. Domain 3: Social and Emotional Development Sub-Domain: Social Development Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten First, Second, and Third Grades DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT INTERACTIONS WITH PEERS GOAL 29: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE POSITIVE NEGOTIATION SKILLS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Initiate and respond to caregiver’s attempts to interact. § Communicates needs through crying, vocalizations, and movements. § Uses voice to interact with caregiver in a conversational way (e.g. baby says, “ooh” andcaregiver says, “ooh”). § Reaches out to touch adults, other children, or others’ toys. § Expresses self through differing vocalizations (differentiated cry,hunger, pleasure, protest). § Mimics facial expressions and simple movements. § Gives eye contact and follows movement in the room. § Gives or takes toys from a familiar adult. § Gives cues to initiate interaction with caregiver, by the end of the period. § Interact with child by holding, cuddling, hugging, smiling, and laughing with child; appropriate to the child’s responses. § Nurture child during stressful times by using touch, verbalresponses, or gestures. § Learn to recognize child’s intent and various vocalizations, facial expressions, gestures, and body language. § Use words to label or narrate daily routines or child’sexpressions. § Give child time to respond to interaction and then describe their response (e.g., “You are so excited about this big red ball! Do you want to hold it?”). § Allow give-and-take when interacting with child. § Follow the child’s lead. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT INTERACTIONS WITH PEERS GOAL 29: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE POSITIVE NEGOTIATION SKILLS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Give cues to initiate interaction with caregiver and peers. § Uses others’ facial expressions, gestures, or voices to guide behavior. § Uses repeated actions to let others know what is wanted, or to have fun. § Accepts adult intervention to settle disputes over toys. § Takes or leads others toward desired toy or activity to play (takes caregiver’s hand and leadsthem to a toy). § Initiates an interaction by pointing. § Gives and takes toys from other children or adults. § Asks for help through sign language, crying, or simple speech. § Calls out to caregiver from across the room. § Looks over at caregiver to check- in. § Shares food with significant caregiver. § Engages in a series of actions with caregiver and peers by the end of the period. § Respond promptly physically and verbally to child’s cues (e.g., “I’m warming up your bottle Jayden . . . here I come.”). § Model appropriate negotiation and conflict resolution skills withchildren (e.g., “You both want this ball. Let’s get this other ball soyou both have one.”). § Engage child in play and social interactions with other children (dancing, movement, talking at meal time, Peek-a-Boo). § Provide child with opportunities to make some choices. § Verbally describe child’s emotions and actions (e.g., “Look at you reaching.” “Do you want me to pick you up?”). § Expand on child’s language (e.g., “You said, ‘No,’ you don’t want Jacob to take your toy.”). DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT INTERACTIONS WITH PEERS GOAL 29: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE POSITIVE NEGOTIATION SKILLS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Engage in a series of actionswith caregiver and peers tosolve problems orcommunicate ideas. § Brings toys or objects to others as a gesture of play. § Spontaneously gives hugs to others. § Follows a brief social game (rolling the ball, chasing, Ring Around the Rosie). § May push, hit, or bite when another child takes a toy. § Uses adult help to take turns, including giving up and keeping toys and other objects. § Follows simple directions and will sometimes test limits. § Asserts ownership by saying “mine.” § Communicates with other children to settle arguments, with assistance. § Indicates preferences and intentions by communicating yes/no questions (e.g., “Are you done with that?” “Are you still using it?” “Can Javier use it now?” “Do you want to keep it?”). § Provide opportunities for child to play in brief social games (Follow the Leader, rolling the ball, dramatic play, etc.). § Model, show, and talk with child about rules, limits, and optionsand explain how they help people get along and keep children safe(e.g., “Rules are to keep you and your friends safe.”). § Model and provide child with words to use when in a conflict (e.g., “Tell him he can have it when your done.” “May I have that when your done?”). § Teach child to avoid aggressive behaviors (biting, hitting, andyelling) and explain how these actions hurt others (e.g., “It’s notO.K. to bite, but you can tell Johnny that you are mad.”). § Demonstrate and explain positive effects of taking turns (e.g., “Wow, look at Emma! When you gave her a turn on the swing, she was so happy because she didn’t have to wait anymore.”). § Build problem solving skills by engaging children in conversations to make decisionsand find solutions (e.g., “What can we do, you both want the ball?”). DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT INTERACTIONS WITH PEERS GOAL 29: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE POSITIVE NEGOTIATION SKILLS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Solve problems and communicate ideas with a peer, with adult supervision. § Understands the concept of “mine” and “his/hers.” § Approaches other children positively. § Uses simple strategies to solve problems, either individually or in a group (with assistance from an adult). § Uses different turn-taking strategies (bartering, trading, and beginning to share). § Without using physical aggression, negotiates with other children to solve a problem, with some adult assistance. § States a position with reasons (I do not want to play right now because I am tired.). § Seeks out adult when needing help to solve a conflict § Considers the need or interest of another child and accepts or suggests mutually acceptablesolutions. § Provide activities that allow child to negotiate social conflicts (dramatic play, blocks, and a variety of multicultural dress-up clothes). § Give child ample time to solve own problems before intervening. § Model appropriate strategies for conflict resolution and use questions to stimulate thinking (e.g., “What’s happening here?”). Read stories, us flannel board, or invent puppet plays in which characters solve conflicts appropriately. § Build problem solving skills by engaging children inconversations to make decisions and find solutions (e.g., “What canwe do, you both want the ball?”). § Model and provide child with words to use when in a conflict (e.g., “Tell him he can have it when your done.” “May I have that when your done?”). DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT INTERACTIONS WITH PEERS GOAL 29: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE POSITIVE NEGOTIATION SKILLS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Communicate with peers tosolve conflicts, negotiatesolutions, and share ideas. § Attempts to settle disputes or solve problems with another child through negotiation, addressing own rights, and the other child’s needs; with assistance (e.g., “I’ll use the paste for these two pieces of paper, and then give it to you.”). § Acknowledges that play includes issues of fairness, rules,intentions, or motives. § Verbally asserts needs when disagreeing with friends, without aggression. § Offers solutions and is open to suggestions when solving problems with others (e.g., “Youcan have it now, if I can have it later.”). § Support child’s attempts to problem-solve and manage conflicts, rather than solving it for them (e.g., “What should we do to solve this problem?”). § Discuss alternatives to situations and responses (e.g., “What do you want to try first?”). § Model vocabulary for negotiations. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT INTERACTIONS WITH PEERS GOAL 29: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE POSITIVE NEGOTIATION SKILLS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies First, Second, and Third Grades Negotiate and solve conflicts using reasoning, judgment, critical thinking, and a wide- ranging vocabulary. § Applies awareness of others’ emotions to negotiate conflicts. § Uses cues to interpret others’ feelings. § Understands, anticipates, and considers others’ perspectives during negotiations. § Uses problem-solving strategies to find solutions to solve disputes. § Tries various strategies before seeking adult help. § Uses a wide-ranging vocabulary of negotiation concepts to help solve problems. § Label and model various emotions. § Foster development of mediation and negotiation skills according tochild’s developmental abilities and cultural beliefs. § Model vocabulary for negotiations. § Support child to select phrases and vocabulary to resolve conflicts. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 30: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS OF BEHAVIOR AND ITS EFFECTS ON OTHERS. Domain 3: Social and Emotional Development Sub-Domain: Social Development Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten First, Second, and Third Grades DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PRAGMATIC BEHAVIOR GOAL 30: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS OF BEHAVIOR AND ITS EFFECTS ON OTHERS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Become aware that theiractions may be linked toanother’s response. § Repeats actions many times to cause a desired effect (smiles because it makes caregivers smile and laugh). § Recognizes that certain adult actions are associated withexpected behavior (“When my caregiver puts me in mycrib . . . I am supposed to go to sleep.”). § Repeats vocal sounds or screeching to gain caregiver’s attention. § Pushes or drops items off highchair and looks to caregiverfor reaction. § Repeatedly bangs or waves object and looks to caregiver for response. § Anticipates specific reactions to their actions, by the end of the period. § Respond consistently to child’s behaviors with similar actions, tone, and words. § Play turn-taking games with child (Peek-a-Boo). § Respond to child’s needs and celebrate achievements. § Expand on child’s vocalization or actions (e.g., “Da, da, da – thatsound is fun to make!” “Look at you sitting up all by yourself!”). § Provide opportunities for child to explore your face and to lead the interaction (e.g., “You are looking at my eyes, what do you see?”). § While sitting with the child on the floor, provide opportunities for child to lead the interaction anddescribe what you see (e.g., “You really like that book, it haspictures of babies.”). § During care giving routines, give child cues to what will happen next, and allow time for them to respond. § Respond to child’s cues and expand on their response (e.g., “Ican hear you are hungry. I will warm your bottle.”). DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PRAGMATIC BEHAVIOR GOAL 30: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS OF BEHAVIOR AND ITS EFFECTS ON OTHERS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Begin to anticipate reactions to their actions. § Uses others’ facial expressions or gestures to guide own behavior (“I will look at my mother as I reach for the electric outlet.”). § Begins to respond to words and tone of voice for redirection. § May repeat behaviors despite negative consequences. § Shakes head “no” or “yes” in response to questions, mostly “no,” even when child means“yes.” § Uses simple gestures or signs to indicate needs or wants. § Shows understanding that characters from books areassociated with certain actions or behaviors (animal book andanimal sounds). § Brings or gives toys to others to connect or play. § Moves towards or reaches for caregiver to be held. § Uses repeated sounds or words to gain caregivers attention or reaction (e.g., child says, “ba,ba,ba,” and caregiver responds, with “ba, ba, ball.”). § Modifies behavior in an effort to solicit others’ actions orresponses, by the end of the period. § Anticipate the actions of child to prevent them from hurting themselves and others. § Around care giving routines, give child cues about what will happen next (e.g., “I’m going to wipe yourbottom. Oh . . . is that a little cold?”). § Be aware of your responses to child’s behavior. § Talk with child about what they see or what they are doing. § Respond to child’s cues and expand on their response (e.g., “Do you want me to hold you while mom says goodbye?”). § Be aware of the child’s preferences and provideopportunities for child to make simple choices. § Use words to describe the emotion or action the child uses. § Respond to child’s cues lovingly and consistently. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PRAGMATIC BEHAVIOR GOAL 30: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS OF BEHAVIOR AND ITS EFFECTS ON OTHERS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Modify behavior in an effort to solicit others’ actions or responses. § Imitates peers’ behaviors (herding behavior - everyone goes to the block area). § Experiments with the effects of own actions on objects and people. § Demonstrates understanding that playing with certain objects will get adult’s attention. Experiences consequences of a specific behavior but may not understand why the behavior warrants the consequence (e.g., “Why can’t I bang on the pot?”). § Recognizes that certain behaviors will elicit positive or negative responses from adults. § Anticipates the impact of their actions (will squint their eyes, or look to caregiver before they drop an object). § Can discriminate actions according to age, gender, and circumstances. § Will take others’ hand or ask others to come play. § Will tell others “no” or “yes” to simple questions. § Begins to understand the concept of taking turns in a game. § Begins to anticipate the impact of their actions, by the end of theperiod. § Play games with child that demonstrate how behavior and actions cause effects (dump and fill games or sequence songs). § Model and explain waiting behavior (waiting your turn ingrocery checkout line). § Respond positively and with support to child’s cues (e.g., “I can see you would like my help with your shoes. Can you say, ‘help please.’ ”). § Use words to describe child’s emotions. § Provide opportunities for children to play cooperative games (Hide- n-Seek, Ring Around the Rosie, Follow the Leader). § Provide opportunities for child to come up with ideas or games toplay. § Talk with child about rules and safety, and why they are important. § Provide opportunities for choices (e.g., “You can choose the red one or blue one.”). § Redirect child’s negative behaviors into positive behaviors (e.g., “Your body wants to throw today. How about throwing these balls into the basket.”). DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PRAGMATIC BEHAVIOR GOAL 30: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS OF BEHAVIOR AND ITS EFFECTS ON OTHERS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Anticipate the impact of behaviors on others. § Asks “why” questions to understand effects of behavior (“If I do this, why does that happen?”). § Asks “what” questions to understand effects of behavior(“What will happen if I do this?”). § Demonstrates understanding of the consequences of own actions on others (“If I share my toy, they will be happy.”). § Recognizes other children’s kind behaviors. § Shows sympathy and/or empathy for physically hurt or emotionally upset child. § Understands the need to wait for a short period of time for a fungame or activity. § Understands the reasons for rules and routines within the group and accepts them. § Begins to accept the consequences of behavior. § Logically connects actions and reactions. § Provide opportunities for dramatic play so that he/she can practice taking others’ role or perspective. § Have child create “if-then” scenarios (e.g., “If I pick up my toys, then we will go for a walk.”). § When there is a conflict between two children, demonstrate empathy and understanding for both children and clarify their feelings and the situation. § Provide opportunities for children to participate in developing rulesfor the environment (e.g., “We walk inside.” “We keep our handson our own bodies.”) using “what” and “why” questions. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PRAGMATIC BEHAVIOR GOAL 30: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS OF BEHAVIOR AND ITS EFFECTS ON OTHERS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Are increasingly aware that certain behaviors bring positive response and others do not. § Describes how own actions make others feel and behave. § Cooperates with peers to complete a project or games, withlittle conflict. § Engages in empathetic, caring behavior so others respond positively. § Explains his/her response to others’ actions and feelings (e.g., “I gave her a hug, because shewas sad.”). § Engages in and can maintain conversations. § Differentiates interactions with family members, acquaintances,and friends depending on the settings and circumstances. § Demonstrate and provide opportunities for child to take others’ perspective before making decisions (e.g., “What would Maria think or feel if you gave her your books?”). § Engage child in a discussion of how he/she likes or dislikes to betreated. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PRAGMATIC BEHAVIOR GOAL 30: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS OF BEHAVIOR AND ITS EFFECTS ON OTHERS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies First, Second, and Third Grades Initially engage in positive relationships with acquaintances and friends. Have skills and strategies to adapt behavior for most social settings and relationships by the end of the period. § Internalizes standards of the group; but may still need adult monitoring, modeling, and reinforcement. § Clarifies and creates links between moral rules and socialnorms. § Interprets behaviors and words of others. § Refrains from saying something that might embarrass or hurtothers. Learns self regulation within society or smaller groupsbased on actions and reactions. § Begins to create rules for games and activities. § Reads subtle cues quickly and accurately to respond and tomodify behavior. § Promote and model moral sensitivity, judgment, motivation, and character for all children. § Learn about cultural variations in acceptable behavior. § Acknowledge cultural variations in behavior. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 31: CHILDREN PARTICIPATE POSITIVELY IN GROUP ACTIVITIES. Domain 3: Social and Emotional Development Sub-Domain: Social Development Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten First, Second, and Third Grades DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PRAGMATIC BEHAVIOR GOAL 31: CHILDREN PARTICIPATE POSITIVELY IN GROUP ACTIVITIES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Begin to develop awareness of self and others. § Reaches out to touch other children or grabs their toys. § Smiles at other children and adults. § Expresses contentment or joy when with other children, or when a familiar adult is present. § Participates in simple give-and- take with adults, by the end of theperiod. § Provide opportunities and supervision for child to observe play groups. § Provide opportunities for child to play in a variety of environments with other children (park, friend’shome). § Provide consistent, but flexible daily care routine. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PRAGMATIC BEHAVIOR GOAL 31: CHILDREN PARTICIPATE POSITIVELY IN GROUP ACTIVITIES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Begin to make connections and associations with other people, places, and regular routines. § Responds to other children in their environment by looking and reaching toward peers. § Begins to watch simple associative play of other children, with adult support. § Begins to participate in simple parallel play with other children (same toys but no playing together). § Sits together briefly during some activities (snack, story time, lap time). § Imitates others’ behaviors in the group. § Begins to take turns with simple activities, with assistance. § Knows some children’s names. § Shows empathy for a child who is crying or upset. § Becomes familiar with routines and rituals within the group or family. § Provide opportunities for child to play with a few children, with adult support. § Conduct group activities on a regular basis with singing and movement games. § Provide consistent daily care routine or schedule. § Give child warnings before transitions. § Have child participate in simple pick up (one or two items). DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PRAGMATIC BEHAVIOR GOAL 31: CHILDREN PARTICIPATE POSITIVELY IN GROUP ACTIVITIES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Begin to understand and act upon social concepts and how they work in a social environment. § May spontaneously laugh and squeal in response to other children. § Engages briefly with peers in structured play. § Uses names of other children. § Able to wait to take turns, with assistance. § Able to share some objects, people, and space with peers; with adult assistance. § Shows increasing enthusiasm about the company of others. § Participates in loosely structured group games (chase, dramatic play). § Follows family and group routines (meal time behavior). § Mindful of own space and toys. § Identify with child the groups that he/she is a member of (family, school, community, cultural communities). § Encourage participation in simple classroom duties and householdchores. § Provide consistent schedule with ample warning of transitions. § Provide opportunities for brief social games and group activities(“Head, Shoulders, Knees, and Toes”). DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PRAGMATIC BEHAVIOR GOAL 31: CHILDREN PARTICIPATE POSITIVELY IN GROUP ACTIVITIES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Participate in a group activity in a cooperative manner and sustain play toward a common goal with other children. § Notices and comments on who is absent from routine group settings (play groups). § Identifies self as a member of a group (refers to our family, our school, our team, our tribe). § Uses play to explore, practice, and understand social roles. § Joins a group of other children playing, with adult prompts, as needed. § Understands and complies with group rules. § Promote a sense of community and interdependence within groups (cleanup or meal preparation). § Engage child in dramatic play that promotes group work and anunderstanding of social roles. § Model teamwork with others to accomplish a task (have children watch adults prepare a meal together and ask them to contribute simple tasks to the team effort). DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PRAGMATIC BEHAVIOR GOAL 31: CHILDREN PARTICIPATE POSITIVELY IN GROUP ACTIVITIES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Sustain group participation and work toward a common goal. § Follows simple rules of participation in group activities. § Participates cooperatively in large and small group activities(sometimes a leader and sometimes a follower). § Participates in classroom and group routines (join other children feeding the fish or building a structure). § Willing to join in the middle of an on-going group activity with friends. § Invents and sets up activities that include more than one child. § Sometimes part of the audience; sometimes active participants in group events. § Engage children in group discussions and decision-making, and encourage them to contribute their ideas and listen to others. § Encourage participation in group games, allowing children tomakeup or modify rules. § Model positive negotiation and problem-solving skills. § Assist child who needs extra help in sustaining group participation,by suggesting tasks for that child within the group. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PRAGMATIC BEHAVIOR GOAL 31: CHILDREN PARTICIPATE POSITIVELY IN GROUP ACTIVITIES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies First, Second, andThird Grades Participate in invented games and cooperative play with peers. § Follows rules of participation in more complex group activities. § Participates cooperatively in large and small group activities(sometimes a leader; sometimes a follower). § Participates in classroom and group routines (joins other children in group assignments). § Willingly joins in the middle of an on-going group activity withfriends. § Invents and sets up activities that include more than one child. § Assigns roles to other children during group play. § Participates in play with informal peer groups during unstructured activities. § Chooses friends and play activities based on skills andinterests. § Discuss the importance of teamwork when working with others to accomplish a task. § Clarify purpose of group activities and support the follow through to completion of task. § Offer opportunities for both formal group times, and for participation in groups that form spontaneously and informally. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 32: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE SYMPATHY AND EMPATHY. Domain 3: Social and Emotional Development Sub-Domain: Social Development Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten First, Second, and Third Grades DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PRAGMATIC BEHAVIOR GOAL 32: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE SYMPATHY AND EMPATHY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Learn about their world through observation. § Watches and observes adults and other children’s reactions and behaviors. § Smiles when seeing a smiling face. § Shows caution or distress when someone is crying or upset. § Responds to others by vocalizing or cooing. § May reach out to others to touch. § Reacts to human face more than to objects. § Responds to another’s cry, by the end of the period. § Respond quickly to baby’s sounds, cries, and moods in a gentle and reassuring way. § Support and stay with baby during stressful situations. § Name emotions expressed by the baby and respond empathetically. § Model empathetic behavior with adults, children, and animals. § Name emotions expressed by others (e.g., “She’s sad because she fell down.”). § During care giving routines, provide opportunities for baby toobserve and respond to caregiver’s face up close. § Provide opportunities for baby to interact with other babies. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PRAGMATIC BEHAVIOR GOAL 32: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE SYMPATHY AND EMPATHY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Explore relationships through observation and interaction. § Explores plants, flowers, and other living things with multiple senses. § Expresses interest and excitement about animals and other living things. § Recognizes and responds or reacts to strong emotion in caregiver or other children. § Likes to look at and can recognize self and caregiver in amirror. § Increasingly uses social referencing (others’ reaction) and emotions to guide behavior. § Offers objects, food, hugs to others. § May try to comfort another person who is upset. § May become upset when others are hurt. § Matches emotions of others. § Shows interest and excitement about living things around them. § Be aware and respectful of cultural differences in the expression of emotions. § Provide child with regular opportunities for play outdoors. § Provide opportunities for child to observe animals in a safe environment. § Provide mirrors and opportunities for child to see faces and emotions, including their own. § Recognize when baby moves away and looks for the response of a caregiver. § Provide opportunities for children to play together using socialgames and songs (rolling the ball, Head, Shoulders, Knees, andToes). § Follow child’s lead when child is hurt or moving way from caregiver (allow child to react first, then support with appropriate response). § Name emotions expressed by others (e.g., “She‘s sad because she fell down.”). DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PRAGMATIC BEHAVIOR GOAL 32: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE SYMPATHY AND EMPATHY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Choose which emotions to show. Verbalize emotions and feelings. § Demonstrates awareness of feelings during pretend play (soothes a crying doll). § Comforts peers when they are hurt or upset, with adult assistance. § Names emotions of self and others (happy, sad). § Realizes and expresses how another child might feel (e.g., “Tanya is crying, I think she issad.”). § Acts kindly and gently with safe, child-friendly animals. § Increasingly shares with others, helps others, and “cares” for babysiblings. § Becomes concerned about objects related to social behavior (broken toys, missing buttons, or puzzle piece). § Will initiate interactions with others. § Begins to understand that others may have some feelings, by the end of the period. § Provide opportunities to identify emotions by the use of pictures, posters, and mirrors. § Provide opportunities for social and dramatic play with simple themes and props, includingthose from own and different cultures. § Share the wonders of the natural world with child (playing outside together; reading books and telling stories about the natural world; handling natural objects— shells, rocks, plants). § Demonstrate and explain responses to loss, injury, and pain (e.g., “Sam fell down, let’s go seeif he needs our help.”). § Accept child’s strong emotions. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PRAGMATIC BEHAVIOR GOAL 32: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE SYMPATHY AND EMPATHY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Recognize and respond to another’s emotions and situation. § Notices and shows concern for peers’ feelings. § Continues to observe others’ reactions. § Adopts a variety of roles and feelings during pretend play. § Communicates appropriate feelings for characters in stories. § Considers what is alive, not alive, and dead. § Keenly aware of what is unfair to themselves. § Labels own emotions and, increasingly, the emotions of others. § Model a friendly, positive, and respectful manner when listening and responding to child’s comments and suggestions. § Name and discuss feelings (e.g., “I see that you’re sad because...”). § Provide opportunities for child to play with friendly and gentle animals, with close supervision. § Promote play with other children to promote understanding ofothers’ intentions and feelings, with adult support. § Offer opportunities for child to take care of living things (plants, pets, butterflies). § Acknowledge a child’s interest in things that die (plants, pets,butterflies). § When significant people in the child’s environment die or leave, consult with the child’s family to discuss strategies to help the child that are culturally sensitive. § Be attuned to the child’s play themes of loss and grief and reflect on how you might proceedwith the child’s needs. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PRAGMATIC BEHAVIOR GOAL 32: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE SYMPATHY AND EMPATHY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months throughKindergarten Can adjust their plans inconsideration of others. § Communicates others’ feelings. § Comforts family members or friends who are not feeling well or are upset. § Expresses excitement about special events and accomplishments of others within cultural context and expectations. § Volunteers to assist and comforts peer by using words and actions. § Adjusts plans in consideration of others’ wants and needs, at times. § Treats the earth and living things with respect. § Has a growing sense of what is fair and unfair for self and others. § Help child to assist others and take others’ perspectives into consideration. § Set an example for child by respecting the natural world and discussing why it is important (notlittering). § Provide opportunities for child to care for classroom pets or plants. § Discuss why a character reacts as he/she does in a story, whileconsidering cultural differences. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PRAGMATIC BEHAVIOR GOAL 32: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE SYMPATHY AND EMPATHY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies First, Second, and Third Grades Has growing understanding of how another person feels. § Communicates others’ feelings and is developing the ability to understand that others can have more than one emotion at a time. § Comforts family members or friends who are not feeling well orare upset. § Continues to have difficulty with mixed emotions. § Refines de-centering skills to take another person’s point of view. § Facilitates cleanup or supports living things with respect. § Has an increasing sense of justice and fairness; will “stand up” for a friend. § Can comfort another without guidance. § Provide opportunities for child to share and discuss feelings. § Help child to assist others and take others’ perspectives intoconsideration. § Implement classroom routines of protecting the community, natural resources through recycling, public awareness, neighborhood cleanup, and writing to elected officials and business leaders. § Support conflict negotiation skills. § Read poems and books and offer creative art opportunities for a child to express loss and grief. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 33: CHILDREN DEVELOP A SENSE OF HUMOR. Domain 3: Social and Emotional Development Sub-Domain: Social Development Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten First, Second, and Third Grades DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PRAGMATIC BEHAVIOR GOAL 33: CHILDREN DEVELOP A SENSE OF HUMOR. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through8 Months Laugh with pleasure, often in response to primary caregiver. § Giggles and laughs in response to environment or people. § Starts to differentiate familiar from unfamiliar. § Reacts to small surprises such as sounds, faces, and Peek-a-Boo. § Reacts to physical sensations (rocking, lifting). § Reacts to gentle tickling and tummy “raspberries”. § Begins to initiate interactions with caregivers or other children. § Watches and observes the environment and the people in it. § Recognizes and takes interest in new experiences and objects. § Has ability to engage in a relationship. § Develop secure relationship where child can trust caregiver responses and routines. § Become familiar with child’s temperament. § Use surprise faces/expressions. § Play Peek-a-Boo. § Laugh out loud. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PRAGMATIC BEHAVIOR GOAL 33: CHILDREN DEVELOP A SENSE OF HUMOR. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Initiate and respond tocaregiver with laughter. Beginto understand abstraction andabsurdity. § Likes novel sounds and funny faces from familiar people – incongruity. § Anticipates favorite routines. § Begins to understand physical humor (falling down, laughing, looking between legs). § Laughs at surprises and changes from the usual. § Develop secure relationship and trust. § Use social referencing with delight/smiles. § Provide gentle tickling – watch child’s cues for when to stop. § Incorporate playfulness into fun routines (small chase games). § Respond when child initiates play and watches for your response. § Know when to stop. § Use simple rhymes and songs. § Initiate humorous play with silly gestures or novel sounds. § Use surprising sounds or facial expressions in play to elicit laughter. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PRAGMATIC BEHAVIOR GOAL 33: CHILDREN DEVELOP A SENSE OF HUMOR. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Increase ability to uselanguage and body to initiatesocial humor. Have increasedawareness of incongruity. § Laughs at incongruities; visual and spoken (pants on head, cow says, “quack”). § More secure with concept knowledge allowing flexibility for humor. § Exhibits social referencing, joint attention, and reciprocation with adults and peers (plays chase). § Exhibit physical humor (falls down and laughs). § Begins word play – repeats sounds. § Begins to initiate humorous situations. § Makes animal sounds. § Mimics adults as they laugh, with or without knowing the reason for the laughter. § Follow the child’s lead. § Watch child’s cues to know when to stop and protect child (wrestling, chasing,roughhousing). § Read child’s social cues. § Use simple rhymes and songs. § Use joint attention, social referencing, and reciprocation to know when child “gets it.” § Use amused look to communicate. § Use humor to extend interactions and glee. § Clarify social cues between peers when humor is misunderstood especially with a slightly olderchild. § Avoid tickling young children. Tickling can be over stimulating and unpleasant. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PRAGMATIC BEHAVIOR GOAL 33: CHILDREN DEVELOP A SENSE OF HUMOR. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Use novel language, sounds, and meanings to initiate interaction with adults and peers. Use physical humor for social purposes. § Likes simple verbal jokes/riddles, although may not be able to replicate format (Knock-Knock); pre-riddle stage. § Participates in group glee. § Mimics impersonation. § Uses slapstick, physical humor. § Laughs for the delight of laughing. § Uses body function humor. § Makes rude noises. § Makes up sounds and rhymes without meaning. § Combines nonsense and real words. § Uses distortions of familiar attributes/concepts (man’s head/dog’s body, changes in size,shape). § Laughs at gender reversals and incongruous actions (a cow on skates). § Expect jokes and group silliness, know how to guide. § Monitor intensity of experience. § Use humor as a behavior management strategy. § Read silly books and sing silly songs. § Understand role of humor in cognition and social development. § Use humor as a tool for language development. § Clarify social humor between children. § Use joint attention, social referencing, and reciprocationwith child when humor is tentative. § Clarify and support joking/humor between peers. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PRAGMATIC BEHAVIOR GOAL 33: CHILDREN DEVELOP A SENSE OF HUMOR. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months throughKindergarten Use humor to consolidate understanding of concepts and language use. Use increased abstract thinking and humor as a social skill. § Uses more word play, rhymes, magic tricks, and jokes. § Begins to tell riddles and jokes with a format (Knock-Knock);riddle stage. § Participates in social interaction with humorous situations (silly pretend play). § Uses deliberate, humorously provocative actions. § Uses physical humor (jumping, silly walks). § Uses humor for leadership and group acceptance. § Likes gag jokes and toys (plastic poop or vomit). § Likes stories with funny characters, expressions, outcomes. § May use humor to initiate interaction with a trusted adult. § Uses humor with peers to initiate or extend social interactions. § Respond to and create opportunities for humor. § Recognize differences in expression/response of humor. § Provide books with wordplay and situational humor. § Understand role of humor in cognition and social development. § Use humor to extend child’s thinking. § Clarify jokes and humor for child who is slightly younger to scaffoldunderstanding. § Find a riddle book and routinely engage child in “riddle time”. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PRAGMATIC BEHAVIOR GOAL 33: CHILDREN DEVELOP A SENSE OF HUMOR. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies First, Second, and Third Grades Understand multiple meaning for words and situations and expand abstract abilities. Can follow sequences in stories to conclusions. § Likes cartoons/jokes and can follow sequences to punch line. § Likes riddles and jokes and may memorize some favorites. § Likes stories with combinations of word play and situations. § Shows empathy; is not mean- spirited. Can sometimes self monitor, with support. § Can sometimes use teasing and humor to be mean. § Can use humor as a part of a full range of expression. § Starts using humor as a coping mechanism. § Works on sense of appropriate timing for jokes. § Starts to like practical jokes, sometimes on self. § Starts to de-center. Can take another person’s point of view about what is funny. § Uses humor to demonstrate meaning and understanding. § Understand role of humor in cognition and social development. § Provide opportunities for child to act out humorous roles. § Provide books with wordplay and humorous plots. § Use humor to extend thinking and understanding. § Monitor and resolve use of mean humor and conflict between children. § Place ample riddle books in the book area. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 34: CHILDREN ADAPT TO DIVERSE SETTINGS. Domain 3: Social and Emotional Development Sub-Domain: Social Development Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten First, Second, and Third Grades DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT APPRECIATING DIVERSITY GOAL 34: CHILDREN ADAPT TO DIVERSE SETTINGS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months React differently to different settings and people. § Actively observes surroundings. § Demonstrates recognition of a new setting by changing behavior (looks to parent for guidance). § When ready, explores new settings with support from caregiver. § May show different reactions to familiar and unfamiliar people, bythe end of the period. § Establish family rituals, routines, and activities. § Provide adequate transition time and talk with child aboutupcoming changes to schedule or setting. § Provide child with his/her special blanket or other object for comfort during changes. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT APPRECIATING DIVERSITY GOAL 34: CHILDREN ADAPT TO DIVERSE SETTINGS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Initially become aware and are anxious when their primary caregiver leaves. By the end of the period can become very upset and cling. §Explores new settings with support from caregiver. §Demonstrates awareness of different settings by clinging orstaying close to caregiver. §May become anxious when separated from primary caregiver, if not routine. §May refuse to look at or respond to unfamiliar people. §May show irritability when routines are disrupted. §Provide child with opportunities to view and explore new environments, with adult support. §Reassure child and offer comfort in new setting by staying close. §Read child’s cues and body language when in new situation (if child shows distress, stay close, reassure, and limit exposure time). §Be sure to speak with child about a new setting in his/her home language. §Provide child with consistent objects and routines to help adapt to changes in settings. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT APPRECIATING DIVERSITY GOAL 34: CHILDREN ADAPT TO DIVERSE SETTINGS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Initially show concern when new people and new experiences are presented without time for adapting to the new idea. Begin to adapt to new settings and people with some assistance by the end of the period. § Begins to separate from primary caregiver in familiar settings outside the home environment (not always easily). § Explores and plays in a range of familiar settings. § Displays ease and comfort in a variety of places with familiar adults (home, store, car, playground). § Asks questions or acts in other uncertain ways in unfamiliar settings and environments. § May resist leaving a familiar setting. § Accept that child may be uncomfortable when routines change and comfort him/her. § Introduce child to a variety of settings, including diverse cultural settings (libraries, general stores,post office). § If child is uneasy or clingy in new environment, reassure the child and consider reducing the time you stay. § Visit new environments repeatedly (zoo, library, park) sochild can become familiar. § Talk with child about how one setting is different from another setting. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT APPRECIATING DIVERSITY GOAL 34: CHILDREN ADAPT TO DIVERSE SETTINGS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Adjust/transition to new settings and people, with and without adult assistance. § Explores objects and materials and interacts with others in a variety of new settings. § Adjusts behavior in different settings (home, playground). § Adjusts to transitions from one activity/setting to the next during the day. § Provide child with reminders when changes in schedule are planned. § Demonstrate and explain appropriate behavior for different settings. § Involve child in signaling transitions (ringing bell, singing particular song). DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT APPRECIATING DIVERSITY GOAL 34: CHILDREN ADAPT TO DIVERSE SETTINGS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Begin to anticipate what to expect in new settings. § Expresses anticipation of special events in different settings. § Accommodates a variety of settings throughout the day. § Anticipates diverse settings and what will be needed in them, with assistance (e.g., “We’re going to the park, so I’ll bring a ball.” “We’re going to the lake, so I’ll need my swim suit.”). § Prepare child for transition to kindergarten through a variety of activities (visit a kindergarten classroom, practice taking a school bus). § Encourage child to think about and be prepared for diverse cultural settings. § Include child in planning culminating or celebratory activities associated with transitions (going to kindergarten or first grade). DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT APPRECIATING DIVERSITY GOAL 34: CHILDREN ADAPT TO DIVERSE SETTINGS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies First, Second, and Third Grades Initially begin to react differently to different settings. Adjust more quickly to unexpected events by the end of the period. § Develops fears directed to new concerns including physical safety, achievement, and peer relations. § Adjusts to special events in different settings. § Recognizes that other people have opinions and sometimes worry about what others are thinking. § Provide activities for child to express fears in a safe environment (journal writing or drawing pictures). § Make professional support available to parents and childwhen child’s fears interfere with the ability to grow, develop, andlearn. § Create opportunities for child to develop and carry out activities associated with transitions. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 35: CHILDREN RECOGNIZE, APPRECIATE, AND RESPECT SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN PEOPLE. Domain 3: Social and Emotional Development Sub-Domain: Social Development Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten First, Second, and Third Grades DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT APPRECIATING DIVERSITY GOAL 35: CHILDREN RECOGNIZE, APPRECIATE, AND RESPECT SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN PEOPLE. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through8 Months Become aware of the differences between primary caregiver and strangers. § Observes self in mirror. Initially does not recognize the image as self. § Focuses attention on others. § Notices others’ physical characteristics (pats another person’s hair). § Will respond more to a familiar face than a stranger’s face. § Can distinguish primary caregivers from others, by the end of this period. § Share and explore family and community culture with child. § Model appreciation for diversity with other adults and children. § Recognize that introducing a child to a second language has cognitive benefits. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT APPRECIATING DIVERSITY GOAL 35: CHILDREN RECOGNIZE, APPRECIATE, AND RESPECT SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN PEOPLE. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Recognize primary caregiver and strangers. § May express curiosity about others who are of different ethnic and cultural backgrounds, of a different gender, who speak other languages, or have special needs; if they have the opportunity to regularly interact with others. § Recognizes self in mirror. § Observes strangers from a distance. § Seeks primary caregiver if stranger approaches too quickly. § Approaches and is curious about other children. § Plays in the presence of other children. § Can play near others who are different than them, by the end of the period. § Use picture books that explore people with different abilities and cultures. § Provide opportunities for child to interact with children of diverse abilities, cultures, and ethnicities. § Actively support the ongoing use of home language as the English Language Learner (ELL) acquires English. § Play music and sing songs in the languages of the children in a group. § Provide meaningful opportunities with different languages in the classroom. Include common words in everyday activities (hello, goodbye, colors, counting, songs). DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT APPRECIATING DIVERSITY GOAL 35: CHILDREN RECOGNIZE, APPRECIATE, AND RESPECT SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN PEOPLE. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Become aware of similarities and differences between themselves and others. § Becomes aware of differences in gender and other basic similarities and differences between self and others, with adult guidance. § May verbalize general differences in gender, clothing, skin color, orhair color. § Demonstrates awareness of personal preferences (mommy likes the red car, I like the fire truck). § May be shy or reserved with new people or animals. § Provide child with a variety of social and dramatic play materials reflecting cultures of families in the community. § Introduce child to people, experiences, interactions, andsocial settings that are diverse through books, songs, andpeople. § Infuse child’s environment with music, art, and language; include the familiar and the unfamiliar. § Talk to child about preferences, and ask questions or expand on their responses (e.g., “Which onedo you think Billy would like?”). DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT APPRECIATING DIVERSITY GOAL 35: CHILDREN RECOGNIZE, APPRECIATE, AND RESPECT SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN PEOPLE. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Are curious about why they aredifferent or similar to others. § Compares similarities or differences of others (height, hair color) in his/her circle of contact. § Develops awareness, knowledge, and appreciation of own gender and cultural identity. § Includes other children in his/her activities who are of a different gender, ethnic background, who speak other languages, or who have special needs; with guidance. § Asks questions about other families, ethnicity, language, cultural heritage, and differencesin physical characteristics. § Demonstrates an understanding of inclusion or fairness through words and actions. § Provide opportunities for child to describe own physical characteristics. § Celebrate cultural, linguistic, and physical similarities and differences of all children andfamilies. § Demonstrate and explain that one person may play different roles (father and teacher). § Invite parents and others from the community to tell stories and read books to children. § Host volunteer visitor days where people of all abilities, age, race, and gender are included. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT APPRECIATING DIVERSITY GOAL 35: CHILDREN RECOGNIZE, APPRECIATE, AND RESPECT SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN PEOPLE. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months throughKindergarten Recognize and are curiousabout differences andsimilarities in people. § Shows concern about personal fairness within a peer group (e.g., “Everyone else gets a turn. That’s not fair.”). § Recognizes others’ abilities in certain areas (e.g., “Jamie singsreally well. Marie is a fast runner.”). § Names and accepts differences and similarities in preferences (food preferences or favorite play activities). § Notices that other children might use different words for the same object (mother is said differently indifferent languages). § Begins to examine a situation from others’ perspective. § Defends their right and others’ rights to fair treatment. § Discuss why it is positive to celebrate and learn about others’ lives and experiences. § Actively address bias behavior and teach anti-bias responses (correctly pronounce and usechildren’s names). § Engage child in songs, rhymes, and counting games in a different language. § Assist child in developing simple rules for fair play. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT APPRECIATING DIVERSITY GOAL 35: CHILDREN RECOGNIZE, APPRECIATE, AND RESPECT SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN PEOPLE. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies First, Second, and Third Grades Initially are aware of the differences between primary caregiver, family, and strangers. Able to respect similarities and difference and begin to create solutions to biases by the end of the period. § Recognizes others’ abilities in certain areas and how others’ abilities differ from their own abilities. § Names and accepts differences and similarities in preferences(food preferences or favorite play activities). § Notices that other children might use different words for the same object (mother is said differently in different languages). § Examines a situation from others’ perspective. § Recognizes stereotypes and culturally or linguistically unfair or biased behavior. § Demonstrate and explain why it is positive to celebrate and learn about others’ lives and experiences. § Actively address bias behavior and teach anti-bias responses. § Engage child in songs, rhymes, and counting games in a variety of languages. § Assist children to discuss issues where similarities and differencescause conflict. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 36: CHILDREN PERCEIVE THEMSELVES AS UNIQUE INDIVIDUALS. Domain 3: Social and Emotional Development Sub-Domain: Emotional Development Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten First, Second, and Third Grades DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SELF-CONCEPT GOAL 36: CHILDREN PERCEIVE THEMSELVES AS UNIQUE INDIVIDUALS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through8 Months Attach to primary caregivers. § Explores own body (observes hands, reaches for toes). § Explores the face and other body parts of others (touchescaregivers’ ears, hair, hands). § Shows awareness of self in voice and body. § Responds with gestures or vocalization to sounds,movement, or the facial expressions of others. § Shows interest in and may reach for others. § Cuddle, physically nurture, and be responsive to child to foster trust and attachment. § Help child learn to calm self (model calming behavior, offer soothing objects). § Recognize that many families value interdependence. Some children will show varying levels of independence and stronger bonds with family and community. § Through daily care routines, provide opportunities for child toexplore your face and hands. § When approaching a child, talk to them about what is going to happen next (e.g., “I’m coming with your bottle Jade.” “How about we rock in the chair while you drink your milk?”). DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SELF-CONCEPT GOAL 36: CHILDREN PERCEIVE THEMSELVES AS UNIQUE INDIVIDUALS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Develop awareness of self asseparate from primarycaregiver. § May express curiosity about signal caregivers for assistance, attention, or the need for comfort. § May become upset when separated from parent. § Points to at least two body parts when asked. § Responds with gestures or vocalizations when name isspoken. § Shows awareness of self in a mirror image. § Protests when preferred activity is stopped. § Grasps and bangs objects. Feels a sense of ability in one’s own body to make something happen. § Increases independence in playing with toys. § Increases interest in others bodies, especially faces. § Make time to be alone and fully engaged with child. § Give child time to remain engaged in activities. § Tell stories and sing songs from child’s home culture. § Read books and stories with real pictures of children and faces. § Play on the floor with child and allow him/her to crawl over, climb, and pull up using you as a support. § Talk and sing to child about body parts (Head, Shoulders, Knees,and Toes). § Verbally describe the child’s accomplishments (e.g., “Wow! You climbed all the way up the ramp.”). DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SELF-CONCEPT GOAL 36: CHILDREN PERCEIVE THEMSELVES AS UNIQUE INDIVIDUALS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Increase awareness of their personal characteristics and preferences. § Tests limits and strives for independence. § Becomes upset when separated from primary caregiver, and maycling upon reunion. § Recognizes and calls attention to self when looking in the mirror or at photographs. § Identifies self and uses own name when asked (e.g., “I am a boy. “My name is Rueben.”). § Identifies objects as belonging to him or her (e.g., “Mine!”). § Shows awareness of being seen by others (exaggerates or repeats behavior when child noticessomeone is watching). § Occupies self appropriately for brief periods of time (10 to 15 minutes). § Attempts to complete basic daily living tasks (eating, getting dressed). § Can make choices when given two to three options. § Indicates preferences by answering yes/no questions. § Provide opportunities for child to talk about self and others, including cultural and linguistic characteristics. § Be aware and respectful of cultural differences in valuingindependence. § Expect child to protest as he/she expresses individuality. § Read books and stories about different abilities and cultures. § Talk and sing to the child about their particular characteristics. § Display pictures and collages of the child and family. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SELF-CONCEPT GOAL 36: CHILDREN PERCEIVE THEMSELVES AS UNIQUE INDIVIDUALS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Use strategies to differentiate themselves from others, and to get their needs met. § Demonstrates awareness of their abilities, characteristics, and preferences. § Refers to self by first and last name and uses appropriate pronouns (I, me) rather thanreferring to self in the third person. § Chooses individual activities (doing puzzles, painting). § Expresses self in different roles during pretend play. § Can express feelings about separating from primary caregiver. § Compares self with others. § Describes self as a person with a mind, a body, and feelings. § Describes family members and begins to understand their relationship to one another. § Exerts will and preferences. § Acknowledge child’s accomplishments. § Encourage child to experiment with growing competence andindividuality by providing child opportunities to make choices ordecisions. § Engage child in drawing pictures of self and others and talk about similarities and differences. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SELF-CONCEPT GOAL 36: CHILDREN PERCEIVE THEMSELVES AS UNIQUE INDIVIDUALS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Begin to recognize their personal characteristics, preferences, and abilities. § Takes pride in their responsibilities and follows through on them (help with chores). § Begins to show self-direction in actions. § Differentiates preferences for self and others (e.g., “I like to play with blocks.” “She likes to play with trucks.”). § Verbalizes their individual abilities. § Identifies roles within family, school, and community. § Asks for help, as needed. § Provide opportunities for child to share information about self in multiple ways (storytelling, drama, drawing, writing). § Offer opportunities for the child to tell about the characteristicshe/she has that represent his/her background and family. § Provide culturally relevant materials that allow the child to see him/her in books, dolls, and dramatic play materials. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SELF-CONCEPT GOAL 36: CHILDREN PERCEIVE THEMSELVES AS UNIQUE INDIVIDUALS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies First, Second, and Third Grades Working independently and with others. § Shows self-direction in actions. § Shares information about self with others. § Can plan activities and behavior that include doing things alone, with a group, or with the family. § Works independently and interdependently, and shows pleasure from it. § Can take care of most of their dressing, hygiene, and social decision-making. § Accepts responsibilities and follows through on them (helpswith chores). § Describes self using behavioral characteristics (e.g., “I am a great soccer player.”). § Provide opportunities for child to share information about self in multiple ways (storytelling, drama, drawing, writing). § Talk with child about the characteristics he/she has thatrepresent his/her cultural background or family. § Provide culturally relevant materials that allow the child to see him/her in books, dolls, and dramatic play materials. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 37: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE BELIEF IN THEIR ABILITIES. Domain 3: Social and Emotional Development Sub-Domain: Emotional Development Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten First, Second, and Third Grades DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SELF EFFICACY GOAL 37: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE BELIEF IN THEIR ABILITIES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Begin to calm self for very brief periods. § Can calm self for very brief periods by sucking or staring at an object. § Repeats a sound or gesture that creates an effect (repeatedly shakes a rattle after discoveringthat it makes a sound). § Recognizes that adults respond to cues. § Explores environment. At first in close contact with caregiver, andthen farther away from caregiver as the child grows. § Looks to caregiver when accomplishing new tasks (sitting, pulling up). § May sometimes show signs of “global empathy” and get upsetwhen someone else is upset. § Provide early face-to-face interactions and internalized rules about reciprocity, turn-taking, and discourse. § Stay near child to provide encouragement that isappropriate to the child’s individual temperament. § Provide a safe environment for child to explore many activities. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SELF EFFICACY GOAL 37: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE BELIEF IN THEIR ABILITIES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Begin to view self as capable of influencing their environment. § Gives objects or toys to others (picks up a rock then reaches to give it to caregiver). § Smiles when succeeding in a task/activity. § Monitors caregiver’s emotional expressions in situations of uncertainty. § Begins to express a desire for individuality. § Says “no” and uses frequent tantrums to express the desire to be independent. § Shows genuine concern for another’s distress. § Projects empathetic behavior of their own needs on another. § Continually needs to stay away from danger. § Shows concerns about broken toys or damaged goods that do not conform to an expected standard. § Describe and acknowledge child’s actions and accomplishments (e.g., “You took off your own socks.”). § Provide materials so child can experience success. § Be patient, wait for child to be frustrated with their attempts before offering assistance. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SELF EFFICACY GOAL 37: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE BELIEF IN THEIR ABILITIES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months View self as capable of startingand completing a simple task. § May show a few signs of feelings associated with actions. § Recognizes own accomplishments. § Shows completed projects (drawing, pile of blocks) to caregiver. § Acts as if they are capable of doing new tasks and activities(copies use of adult tools, tries to sweep the floor with an adult-sized broom, wants real tools). § Seeks help after trying something new or challenging. § Occasionally demonstrates rudimentary self-control whenthey stop themselves from doing something, but is still unreliable. § Begins to follow internalized rules part of the time (puts self in timeout). § Uses social referencing (checks out emotional responses ofothers) to regulate behavior. § Often pretends to discipline doll during play, showing understanding of rules. § Still has difficulty transferring rules across time and setting. § Still relies on caregiver to follow rules and to contain impulses some of the time, and may act out if no one else is in the room. § May not be able to generalize about objects that cannot betouched. § Shows several signs of feelings associated with actions, by the end of the period. § Begins to understand that sharing is important. § Remains likely to take another child’s toy and possessions. Realizes others’ needs may be § Encourage or provide opportunities for the child to engage in new tasks that they can accomplish successfully. § Provide safe environment for active exploration. § Celebrate with child over accomplishments and explorations. § Monitor child and support as he/she pushes self to try newabilities (keeps going higher on ladder). § Describe child’s actions as they try new skills rather than giving empty praise. § Describe child’s efforts at attempting a skill, even if they donot succeed. § different from their own. § Are aware when they have done something wrong, and anticipates the feelings of others and possible consequences. § Are aware of differences between moral and social-conventionalviolations and respond by telling other children about the effects oftheir behavior. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SELF EFFICACY GOAL 37: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE BELIEF IN THEIR ABILITIES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Develop sense of competence. § Expresses delight with mastery of a skill (e.g., “I did it myself!”). § Asks others to view own creations (e.g., “Look at mypicture!”). § Demonstrates confidence in own abilities (e.g., “I can climb to the top of the big slide!” A child in leg braces has a big smile on their face when using a walker by themselves.). § Expresses own ideas and opinions. § Enjoys the process of creating. § Demonstrates pride and pleasure when someone reacts to thechild’s action or creation. § May argue with caregiver about what they are supposed to do. § Will use private or inner speech to help remember rules andstandards for behavior. § Shows less negativism and complies most of the time. § Are more likely to experience guilt when they hit other children,break toys, or make a parent sad. § May show a few signs of feelings associated with actions. § Shows some self-criticism, shame, and guilt if they do notsucceed or make a mistake. § Are more consistent in sharing and view it as an obligation. § Provide opportunities for child to try a task and offer assistance, as appropriate. § Provide plenty of time and opportunities for child to play, explore, experiment, andaccomplish tasks and develop a sense of competence. § Invite child to share ideas, skills, or ways to solve a problem. § Offer opportunities for children to watch each other trying new skills. § Assist children begin activities at a level where they previously displayed skill and provide encouragement for each little bit of the skill they achieve. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SELF EFFICACY GOAL 37: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE BELIEF IN THEIR ABILITIES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months throughKindergarten Believe self capable of influencing the surrounding world. § Takes on new tasks and improves skills with practice (wheeling self in wheelchair). § Initiates actions or activities with peers. § Views self as capable of starting and completing a task. § Expresses delight over a successful project and wantsothers to like it too. § Persists with tasks until finished. § Participates in community service projects. § Engage child in attainable and challenging opportunities that will build on abilities. § Encourage child to take the next step in a challenge. § Give child realistic chores and make a chart of all the work accomplished. § Demonstrate confidence in child by allowing him/her to make reasonable decisions andchoices. § Take every opportunity to celebrate success. § Give genuine, specific praise that focuses on the task (e.g., “You dida good job picking up the toys!”). DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SELF EFFICACY GOAL 37: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE BELIEF IN THEIR ABILITIES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies First, Second, and Third Grades Initially can understand and comply with rules of family, school, and society. Can reason through moral dilemmas by the end of the period. § Takes on new tasks and improves skills with practice (wheeling self in wheelchair). § Expresses pride over a successful project. § Starts a task, can expand on it, and works on it until finished. § Give child realistic chores and make a chart of all the work accomplished. § Demonstrate confidence in child by allowing him/her to make reasonable decisions andchoices. § Ensure that environment is safe from cultural or other forms of bias (review materials to ensure there are no stereotypical or racist images in books, dolls, or other objects in the environment). IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 38: CHILDREN REGULATE THEIR FEELINGS AND IMPULSES. Domain 3: Social and Emotional Development Sub-Domain: Emotional Development Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten First, Second, and Third Grades DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SELF-CONTROL GOAL 38: CHILDREN REGULATE THEIR FEELINGS AND IMPULSES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through8 Months Begin to calm and sooth self for brief periods of time. § Signals needs with sounds or motions (cries when hungry or reaches for wanted object of comfort). § Relaxes or stops crying when comforted (when swaddled orspoken to softly). § Comforts self by clutching, sucking, or stroking when tired or stressed (calm while stroking or holding soft blanket; get fist, fingers, or pacifier to mouth for self soothing). § Cries or uses other vocalizations, facial expressions, or bodylanguage to express emotions and to get needs met. § Communicates need for support or help from adults (holds out arms when tired). § Anticipates routine interactions (lifts arms toward caregiver to bepicked up). § Develops increasing consistency in sleeping, waking, and eating patterns. § Shows awareness of change and routine; may object to changes. § Responds to emotional cues and social situations (crying when other babies cry). § Snuggle, cuddle, and physically nurture child in ways appropriate to their specific sensory needs. § Respond to child’s signals for attention. § Check environment for appropriate levels of noise, temperature, light, and other stimuli. Be aware of environmental factors that might cause distress. § Establish routines for eating, sleeping, diapering, and otherregular activities while taking into account family’s care practicesand child’s schedule. § Be aware that babies cry to express a range of feelings, and respond appropriately. § Comfort a child quickly when he/she cries; this helps him/her feel safe. § Model and respond to child’s displays of pleasure by matching child’s emotions with facial expressions, tone, and words. § Respond to child’s displays of distress by staying with child and sensitively helping child withdifficult feelings. § Nurture child with kind words, hugs, and cuddles being sensitive to individual sensory needs. § Encourage use of transitional object. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SELF-CONTROL GOAL 38: CHILDREN REGULATE THEIR FEELINGS AND IMPULSES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Begin to recognize and respond to the emotional cues of others. § Seeks caregiver’s support and attention when feeling strong emotions. § Begins to control impulses (says “no” when reaching for forbidden object; restrains self fromstepping on a book on the floor). § Engages in some regular behaviors (sings or babbles self to sleep, goes to high chair to be fed). § Participates in routine interactions (quiets body when picked up;cooperates in dressing). § Follows some consistently set rules and routines. § Smiles, waves, or laughs in response to positive adultinteraction. § Shakes head or gestures to indicate wants and needs. § Stay with child during stressful situations to help him/her regulate emotions. § Model managing own emotions and impulses. § Name own emotions when interacting with child. § Maintain and support child’s routine for eating, sleeping, andother daily care activities. § Talk with child about emotions through books and songs. § Support and comfort child’s emotions by labeling andproviding ideas to help (e.g., “You are really mad, do you want me tohold you?”). § Read books and talk to child about feelings. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SELF-CONTROL GOAL 38: CHILDREN REGULATE THEIR FEELINGS AND IMPULSES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Learn to accept limits and boundaries, with adult support. § Matches emotions to environment and situations. § Tests limits and strives for independence. § Anticipates and manages emotions associated with them (helps to pickup and put away blocks at cleanup time). § Recognizes and expresses emotions towards familiar persons, pets, or possessionswith appropriate facial expressions, words, gestures,signs, or other means. § Learns about and begins to name own feelings. Realizes that it is okay to feel silly, sad, angry, and all other emotions. § Seeks caregiver’s support when needing help. § Shows anxiety over separation from teacher, but calms down once teacher has left. § Plays near and is interested in other children. § Will offer or take toys from other children. § Begins to understand the concept of property (“yours, “his,” “mine”). § Will carry out simple one- or two- step directions. § May become easily frustrated with challenging tasks (cries whena toy won’t do what they want, or they can’t get their socks off). § Set simple rules and respond consistently to child’s behavior. § Offer child real choices that are okay from the adult’s point of view(e.g., “Do you want to wear a red or blue sweater?”). § Maintain consistency when establishing limits (bedtime, sweets, etc.). § Recognize that a child’s protests of limits are a normal part ofdevelopment. § Listen carefully and with interest to what child says, expanding on the message. § Provide opportunities for child to experience a range of emotions. § Use words to teach child to associate feelings with their proper names. § Support and comfort child when he/she develops fears. § Model a range of appropriate ways to express different feelings. § Talk with child about feelings. § Talk with child when they are calm about strategies for managing emotions (deep breathes, trusted adult, transitional object). § Understand that child may need assistance in discussing and expressing feelings. § Recognize that some children may not express emotions verbally (invite child to draw pictures, use signs or gestures, or go for a walk to express emotions). § Consider the values of families and cultural groups regarding emotional expression (do notforce or deny child’s emotional expression). DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SELF-CONTROL GOAL 38: CHILDREN REGULATE THEIR FEELINGS AND IMPULSES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Become increasingly able to control actions, words, and emotions in response to a situation or an adult request, with some adult assistance. § Expresses strong emotions constructively, at times and with assistance. § Expresses ownership of feelings and desires to control self, with assistance. § Calms self after having strong emotions, with guidance (goes to quiet area or requests favorite book to be read when upset). § Sometimes waits for turn and shows patience during group activities. § Sticks with difficult tasks without becoming overly frustrated. § Participates easily in routine activities (meal time, snack time, bedtime). § Follows simple rules without reminders (handles toys with care). § Demonstrates increasing ability to use materials purposefully, safely,and respectfully. § Adapts to changes in daily schedule. § Predicts what comes next in the day, when there is an establishedand consistent schedule. § Names and talks about own emotions. § Uses pretend play to understand and respond to emotions. § Associates emotions with words, and facial and body expressions. § Uses drawing, painting, and clay to express emotions. § Anticipate and provide guidance when child needs assistance regulating emotions. § Provide child with schedules and routines. § Prepare child for changes in daily schedule by providing advance warning, talking with, and listening to child. § Provide opportunities for child to understand and discuss own andothers’ feelings. § Model appropriate expression of emotions and talk about how you feel (singing when you are happy, sighing when you are frustrated, pounding clay when angry). § Discuss how the characters in a book might feel while reading books with child. § Be aware of cultural and gender differences in expressing feelings. § Avoid stereotyping a child’s expression of emotion (validate boys when they cry, girls whenthey get angry). § Incorporate books on feelings that reflect the language and cultural background of the child. § Engage child in pretend play with other children using realistic props that encourage children to act outreal life situations and feelings in response to situations. § Acknowledge child for expressing and regulating feelings. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SELF-CONTROL GOAL 38: CHILDREN REGULATE THEIR FEELINGS AND IMPULSES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months throughKindergarten Manage and express feelings appropriately, most of the time. § Expresses self in safe and appropriate ways (expresses anger or sadness without fights). § Shows ability to control destructive impulses, with guidance. § Seeks peaceful resolution to conflict. § Stops and listens to instructions before jumping into activity, with guidance. § Participates in own care routines when there is a special health care need. § Follows rules in different settings (lowers voice when enteringlibrary). § Applies rules in new but similar situations. § Explains simple family or classroom rules to others. § Expresses feelings through play. § Shares own excitement with peers, caregivers, and adults. § Acknowledges sadness about loss (changes in caregiver, divorce, or death). § Does not inhibit emotional expression (cries when feelingsad). § Names some types/levels of emotion (frustrated, angry). § Guide group discussions about problem solving and conflict management. § Help child understand and accept different ways of expressing emotion and communicating (setrules that prohibit children from making fun of each others’differences). § Provide opportunities for child to share and talk about feelings with adults and peers. § Positively acknowledge child for expressing emotions appropriately. § Help child express his/her feelings as he/she plays with others, pretends with toys, expresses through art media, and listens to stories. § Provide transition cues when moving to new activities. § Respect individual differences between children’s personalities and temperaments. DOMAIN 3: SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUB-DOMAIN: EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT SELF-CONTROL GOAL 38: CHILDREN REGULATE THEIR FEELINGS AND IMPULSES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies First, Second, andThird Grades Manage and express their own feeling appropriately, and inhibit inappropriate words, actions, and emotions most of the time, without adult supervision. § Expresses self in safe and appropriate ways (expresses anger or sadness without fights). § Shows ability to control destructive impulses, with guidance. § Seeks peaceful resolution to conflict. § Stops and listens to instructions before jumping into activity, with guidance. § Participates in own care routines when there is a special health care need. § Follows rules in different settings (lowers voice when enteringlibrary). § Applies rules in new but similar situations. § Explains simple family or classroom rules to others. § Expresses feelings through play. § Shares own excitement with peers, caregivers, and adults. § Acknowledges sadness about loss (changes in caregiver, divorce, or death). § Does not inhibit emotional expression (cries when feelingsad). § Names some types/levels of emotion (frustrated, angry). § Support and celebrate child’s growing ability to show and understand their own behavior and emotions. § Provide routines and structure within the child’s day allowingthem to respond to the unexpected. § Make daily plans with child, underlining items that are different from the usual routine. § Support child’s feelings, non- judgmentally. § Guide child’s ability to identify their own emotions and those of others. § Provide opportunities for civic engagement. § Provide opportunities for child to support each other. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE INTRODUCTION During the first few years of life, children gain greater knowledge and understanding of their environments. They develop skills in: §Logic §Reasoning §Observation §Imagination §Problem-solving Learning is facilitated and mediated by development of cognitive skills that include: §Attention §Memory §Sensory awareness §Analysis §Interpretation Exploration, play, repetition, and elaboration are key elements of these complex developing brain processes. Children connectlearning experiences with their life and see the relevancy of the new knowledge. A child’s culture is foundational to how the childlearns to use these process skills. RATIONALE The early childhood years encompass significant development of the child’s brain as well as the emergence of language and thinking. At birth, a child’s brain is nearly 30% developed; and by age 5, the brain is over 90% developed. (Shonkoff & Phillips,2000) This rich and unique time of growth creates the foundation for later academic learning. The indicators in this domain arealigned with the Idaho K-12 Standards and are grounded in the research and best practices of early childhood development. GENERAL DEFINITION For the purposes of the Idaho Early Learning eGuidelines, Domain 4: General Knowledge is divided into sub domains: §Mathematics and Numeracy §Science §Social Studies §Family, Community, and Culture §Creative Arts MATHEMATICS AND NUMERACY Mathematics and numeracy skills include skills for understanding and using numbers and quantity, special relations, numerous mathematical operations, measurements, and properties of ordering. These skills are essential for children to effectively navigate mathematical situations that arise in everyday life. (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2009) SCIENCE Scientific thinking and knowledge skills include observation, building an understanding of cause and effect in the natural world, and making predictions. It is the development of scientific thinking that helps children apply and test their knowledge through methodical inquiry and verification. By acquiring scientific knowledge, children gain an understanding of and information about their surroundings. SOCIAL STUDIES Developing knowledge of social studies allows children to understand how people interact with and relate to the people in the world around them. Here, social studies include: § history and historical reasoning (includes concepts about time, past and future), § geography (includes weather, land forms, and impact of geography on humans), § economics (includes understanding very basic concepts of money markets), § ecology (includes the natural world around us), and § technology. The goals in this section are based on recommendations from the Idaho State Department of Education Social Studies Position Statement, (2010-2016). FAMILY, COMMUNITY, AND CULTURE This aspect of cognitive development involves children learning how to interact with people in their families and the larger community. CREATIVE ARTS Children’s ability to express and represent themselves through movement, music, theater, and visual arts are an outgrowth of cognition. Expressing and representing ideas through the arts is paired with an understanding and appreciation of the arts. The arts give children ways to express their feelings, experiences, and meanings in ways that go beyond the limits of language. This includes learning the symbolic and cultural arts traditions of their community and culture. SUPPORTING INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, LANGUAGE, AND DIVERSITY Children differ in their rates of acquiring general knowledge and in the ways in which they learn, remember, and understand. For example, some children favor logical reasoning to tackle a learning task, while others take a creative or movement-based approach. Differences in children’s cognitive approaches are not, and should not be viewed as deficits. Some children who have disabilities, developmental delays, or who are at risk for developmental delays, may require adaptations to support their development. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 39: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE UNDERSTANDING OF NUMBERS, WAYS OF REPRESENTING NUMBERS, RELATIONSHIPS AMONG NUMBERS, AND NUMBER SYSTEMS. Domain 4: General KnowledgeSub-Domain: Mathematics and Numeracy Birth through 8 Months 6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: MATHEMATICS AND NUMERACY NUMBER SENSE AND OPERATIONS GOAL 39: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE UNDERSTANDING OF NUMBERS, WAYS OF REPRESENTING NUMBERS, RELATIONSHIPS AMONG NUMBERS, AND NUMBER SYSTEMS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Begin to develop awareness of quantity. § Begins to show awareness of differences between people and objects. § Begins to show awareness of small quantity differences; looking at or reaching for two or morepeople or objects. § Begins to respond to the spoken concept, “more” in reference to food or play. § Shows cues of hunger and fullness. § Uses gestures to request “more.” § Responds by focusing on an object pointed to by someone. § Count objects in child’s environment “out loud” in the home language. § Engage child in activities that show “more.” § Use counting finger-plays, songs, and number rhymes (One, Two, Buckle My Shoe). § Tell stories and read books with numbers and counting, and provide large age-appropriatemagnetic numerals and multiple hand-size blocks. § Respond to child’s hunger and fullness cues with either more food or by withdrawing food. § Pair words for “more” with action around hunger, fullness, reachingfor more toys, more hugs, or more music. § Feed infants in relation to hunger and fullness cues. § Comment on socks and shoes as they are put on the infant (e.g., say, “one shoe . . . two shoes). DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: MATHEMATICS AND NUMERACY NUMBER SENSE AND OPERATIONS GOAL 39: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE UNDERSTANDING OF NUMBERS, WAYS OF REPRESENTING NUMBERS, RELATIONSHIPS AMONG NUMBERS, AND NUMBER SYSTEMS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Manipulate objects with a variety of attributes and quantities. § Notices characteristics of objects (size, color, shape, or quantity). § Shows interest in real-life mathematical concepts (matchingobjects, lining up objects, enjoying books with numbers andcounting). § Begins to use symbols, signs, and language to show wanting “more” and “all gone”. § Fills and dumps containers with objects. § Searches for objects that are out of sight. § Drops objects; then looks for the object. § Describe the groups/arrangements of objects that the child places together (e.g., “I see you put all the blocks together.”). § Use numbers to label items (counting shoes, toes, or food) used in daily routines. § Use counting finger-plays, songs, and number rhymes (one, two, buckle my shoe). § Tell stories and read books with numbers and counting. § Provide number/numeral materials in child’s environment (large age-appropriate magnetic numerals). § Engage child in activities that show “more”. § Read books that have themes such as big and little, more, all gone, and counting. § Sing songs that introduce numbers and encourage the child to sing along (3 little ducks, 3 littlemonkeys). § Provide opportunities for child to fill and dump containers with objects. § Peek-a-Boo. § Hide objects to be found. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: MATHEMATICS AND NUMERACY NUMBER SENSE AND OPERATIONS GOAL 39: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE UNDERSTANDING OF NUMBERS, WAYS OF REPRESENTING NUMBERS, RELATIONSHIPS AMONG NUMBERS, AND NUMBER SYSTEMS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Compare differences between two or more objects or groups of objects. Compare differences in the quantity of objects. § Matches objects by a single characteristic (size, color, shape, or quantity). § Sorts objects by a single characteristic (size, color, shape, or quantity). § May begin to imitate counting. Uses some number words (one, two . . .). § Recognizes that a single object is “one” regardless of size, shape, orother attributes. § Imitates counting rhymes or songs (Five Little Monkeys). § Recognizes some quantities (sees 2 blocks and says, “Two.”). § Manipulates sets of up to three items. § Uses words to symbolize quantity and comparisons of quantity (all, some, none, more). § Understands basic common relations (toothbrush and toothpaste). § Use quantity concepts in everyday routines (e.g., Would you like one more or two more pieces?). § Pair objects during daily activities (one child gets one snack). § Provide child with math-related toys and objects from own and other cultural backgrounds, for grouping and counting. § Model using math and writing numerals in daily activities (using tally marks to count children whowant milk). § Use counting finger-plays, songs, and number rhymes, repeatedly. § Tell stories, sing songs, and read books with numbers and counting,repeatedly. § Provide opportunities for child to fill and dump containers with objects at the water table and sand table. § Provide small table blocks and unit blocks for child to play andexplore with. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: MATHEMATICS AND NUMERACY NUMBER SENSE AND OPERATIONS GOAL 39: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE UNDERSTANDING OF NUMBERS, WAYS OF REPRESENTING NUMBERS, RELATIONSHIPS AMONG NUMBERS, AND NUMBER SYSTEMS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Use number words andconcepts to explore andmanipulate quantity, size, andrelationships. § Develops understanding of counting process (recognition and naming numerals one, two and three); counting up to ten from memory in home language (e.g., recites, “one, two, three), without assistance. § Counts up to ten objects; matching numbers one-to-one with objects (cubes, toys, andpennies) within daily activities. § Develops understanding that when counting items they must be counted only once, and that none should be left out. § Begins recognizing that the last number counted represents the“total objects” (for quantities up to ten). Counting is cumulative. § Applies numbers and counting concepts within daily routines (count numbers of children at the table). § Applies counting to new situations (counting objects, counting groups). § Demonstrates understanding that numbers represent quantity (gets three apples out of the box). § Uses math concepts (more, less, some, many, all, a few, none,huge, tiny, small, smaller, large, larger) to compare quantities. § May count backwards from ten. § Differentiates numerals from letters. § Recognizes and names some numerals (pointing to written numerals named by adult). § Writes and identifies some numerals named by adult. § Uses meanings of numbers to create strategies for solving problems and responding to § Talk aloud and engage child in meaningful counting and activities that incorporate simple math computations during daily routines (e.g., number of snacks needed for the number of children). § Have child divide objects equally among a group of people (eachchild gets three crackers or five different color crayons). § Pose math questions relevant to daily life (e.g., “How many days until your birthday? How many days until the field trip?”). § Estimate how many objects you have or will see and then count out loud (e.g., How many childrenare here, and who is not?). § Engage the child in activities and interactions that use numbers and counting (play grocery store, engage child in recording inventories of canned goods or fish). § Play culturally-appropriate card and board games using countingand number concepts with children. § Make available daily puzzles and manipulative materials that link numerals to pictures to represent quantity. § Post numerals and icons (simple pictures) in the room to indicate group size limits for each learningcenter. § Describe and explain how printed numbers have different meanings (speed limits, temperature, clock, prices). § Use pictures to represent real life situations involving mathematicalconcepts (such as simple addition used in cooking recipes). § Provide a variety of objects for the child to collect, handle, and practical situations, with assistance (e.g., “Jimmy took two crackers and I didn’t get any.”). group (buttons, stones, pinecones). § Provide cooking activities with recipes that link numerals to pictures to represent quantity. § Use counting finger-plays, songs, and number rhymes, repeatedly. § Tell stories and read books with numbers and counting, repeatedly. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: MATHEMATICS AND NUMERACY NUMBER SENSE AND OPERATIONS GOAL 39: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE UNDERSTANDING OF NUMBERS, WAYS OF REPRESENTING NUMBERS, RELATIONSHIPS AMONG NUMBERS, AND NUMBER SYSTEMS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Count with understanding. Recognize “how many” are in sets of objects; demonstrating an understanding of discrete numbers. § Tells what number comes before or after a given number up to 10. § Tells what number comes before or after a given number up to 20,with assistance. § Demonstrates the difference between addition (more) and subtraction (take away), with assistance. § Understands that quantity is not affected by the arrangement ofthe objects being counted. § Understands that when counting items they must be counted only once and none should be left out. § Uses numbers to predict and make realistic guesses (e.g., “I think there are about 20 marblesin that jar.”). § Puts numeral cards in order 1 to10. § Counts backwards from 10. § Shows the verbal, symbolic, and physical representation of a number up to 10. § Understands and uses numbers in meaningful ways. § Demonstrates knowledge of our numeration system by counting forward by ones to at least 31. § Identifies a penny as a value of money. § Selects strategies appropriate for solving a problem. § Performs computation accurately. § Uses concrete objects to illustrate the concepts of addition and subtraction. § Estimates and judges reasonableness of results. § Uses estimation to identify a number of objects and evaluates § Estimate how many objects there are and then count out loud. § Child and adult pose math questions relevant to daily life(How many days until your birthday? How many days untilthe field trip?). § Use printed numbers in meaningful ways (recording daily temperature for weather forecasts, posting prices for a lemonade stand or bake sale). § Use pictures to represent real-life situations involving mathematical concepts (simple addition used incooking recipes). § Engage the child in activities and interactions that use numbers and counting (play grocery store, engage child in recording inventories of canned goods or fish). § Have children divide objects equally among a group of people(each child gets three crackers or five different color crayons). § Use counting finger-plays, songs, and number rhymes, repeatedly. § Tell stories and read books with numbers and counting, repeatedly. § Model writing simple math equations that are relevant to real-life situations (create and record own recipe). the reasonableness of an answer. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 40: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE UNDERSTANDING OF MEASURABLE ATTRIBUTES OF OBJECTS AND THE UNITS, SYSTEMS, AND PROCESSES OF MEASUREMENT (INCLUDING SIZE, VOLUME, HEIGHT, WEIGHT, LENGTH, AREA, AND TIME). Domain 4: General KnowledgeSub-Domain: Mathematics and Numeracy Birth through 8 Months 6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: MATHEMATICS AND NUMERACY MEASUREMENT GOAL 40: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE UNDERSTANDING OF MEASURABLE ATTRIBUTES OF OBJECTS AND THE UNITS, SYSTEMS, AND PROCESSES OF MEASUREMENT (INCLUDING SIZE, VOLUME, HEIGHT, WEIGHT, LENGTH, AREA, AND TIME). Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Show awareness of spatial relationships. § Begins to show awareness of own body space. § Holds, handles, and plays with toys and objects (different sizesand shapes). § Provide defined areas that allow for movement and exploration of personal space with materials and activities. § Provide multiple containers of various size and shape to fill andempty with toys and objects. § Describe spatial relationships such as “in” and “out” as baby explores items. § Describe and make simple comparisons such as more, less, same. § Provide baby with toys that have incremental sizes (nesting cups, stackable rings) from own and other cultural backgrounds. § During daily care routines, talk with the baby about their surroundings, their bodymovements, and what will happen next. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: MATHEMATICS AND NUMERACY MEASUREMENT GOAL 40: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE UNDERSTANDING OF MEASURABLE ATTRIBUTES OF OBJECTS AND THE UNITS, SYSTEMS, AND PROCESSES OF MEASUREMENT (INCLUDING SIZE, VOLUME, HEIGHT, WEIGHT, LENGTH, AREA, AND TIME). Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Compare spatial relationships among objects. § Increases awareness of body space in relation to people and objects. § Groups/arranges a few objects by size (smaller and bigger), with assistance. § Fills and empties containers with objects. § Nests two to three sequential cups or blocks. § Takes objects apart and attempts to put them together. § Provide defined areas that allow for spatial movement activities according to personal space using a variety of materials. § Provide multiple containers of various size and shape to fill andempty with toys and objects for use in sand or waterplay. Required to develop an eventual understanding of volume(filling, emptying). § Model the use of language when making comparisons such as more, less, or same and encourage child to make comparisons. § Provide simple and multi-part toys such as pop beads, snap- together blocks, simple puzzles. § Request items according to size, volume, weight, and length (e.g., “Please hand me the big truck.”). § Around the daily care routine, talk with child about mathematicalconcepts using everyday activities and language like countingfingers, toes, airplanes are big, bugs are small, who has blue on,etc. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: MATHEMATICS AND NUMERACY MEASUREMENT GOAL 40: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE UNDERSTANDING OF MEASURABLE ATTRIBUTES OF OBJECTS AND THE UNITS, SYSTEMS, AND PROCESSES OF MEASUREMENT (INCLUDING SIZE, VOLUME, HEIGHT, WEIGHT, LENGTH, AREA, AND TIME). Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Order and sequence objects according to different dimensions. § Uses size words, such as “many,” “big,” and “little,” appropriately. § Fills and empties containers (with sand or water). § Compares the size of various everyday objects (puts different people’s shoes side by side to see which is longest). § Identifies objects by a single characteristic such as big or small, heavy or light, and tall orshort; with assistance. § Looks at two objects and identifies which one is bigger or smaller. § Explores measuring tools (measuring cup, ruler). § Demonstrates comparative behavior by nesting up to five cups. § Orders objects by size, volume, height, weight, and length; with assistance. § Provide sand and water play; giving child opportunities to pour, fill, scoop, weigh, and dump. § Model the use of language involving comparisons according to size, volume, weight, andheight (length) of people, toys, and objects. § Help child to build towers or stairs using blocks sequentially in size or height. § Help child arrange toys or objects from smallest to largest or longestto shortest. § Chart child’s changes in height and weight. § Provide play dough for children to explore, squish, andmanipulate. Add cups and containers for children to fill. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: MATHEMATICS AND NUMERACY MEASUREMENT GOAL 40: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE UNDERSTANDING OF MEASURABLE ATTRIBUTES OF OBJECTS AND THE UNITS, SYSTEMS, AND PROCESSES OF MEASUREMENT (INCLUDING SIZE, VOLUME, HEIGHT, WEIGHT, LENGTH, AREA, AND TIME). Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Use geometric modeling and spatial reasoning according to different dimensions. § Engages in activities that explore and develop vocabulary for measurable properties such as length and weight, or capacity. § Compares amongst several objects based on one or moreattributes (length, size, weight) using words such as “shorter”,“bigger”, or “lighter”. § Understands positional terms such as “between”, “inside”, “over”, “under”, and “behind”. § Sorts and classifies objects based on one or more attributes. § Orders objects by size, volume, height, weight, and length; with assistance. § Measures objects using variable nonstandard units. § Begins to measure objects using standard unit (one-inch cubes, paper clips). § Uses measuring tools in play activities (measuring tape, measuring cups). § Measures sand or water using a variety of containers. § Uses picture cookbook to follow sequence and measures amounts for cooking projects, withassistance. § Uses some vocabulary in relationship to measurement tools (scale, cup, ruler). May not have accurate understanding of meaning. § Estimates size (e.g., “I’m as tall as the yellow bookshelf.”). § Demonstrate, explain, and engage child in activities that use nonstandard measurement (use handfuls to measure rice, use footsteps to measure distance). § Demonstrate, explain, and engage child in activities that measure with standard measuringunits (measure a wooden block using paper clips – is this astandard measuring unit? § Provide a variety of measuring tools (tape measures, rulers, balance scales, measuring cups) for child to use in purposeful ways. § Model and engage use of conventional measuring tools and methods in every day situations(during cooking, art projects, grocery shopping). § Continue to model language involving comparisons according to size, volume, weight, and height (length) of people, toys, and objects. § Play measuring games with child (e.g., “Which is heavier?” “Whichis longer?). § Display information using measurement graphs to visually compare activities and experiences (such as a growth chart of all the children in the class). § Model language and use body and objects using positional terms(behind, inside, on top, under). DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: MATHEMATICS AND NUMERACY MEASUREMENT GOAL 40: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE UNDERSTANDING OF MEASURABLE ATTRIBUTES OF OBJECTS AND THE UNITS, SYSTEMS, AND PROCESSES OF MEASUREMENT (INCLUDING SIZE, VOLUME, HEIGHT, WEIGHT, LENGTH, AREA, AND TIME). Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months throughKindergarten Order objects according to spatial attributes using nonstandard and standard units of measurement. § Compares objects by measurement attributes (longer/shorter, heavy/light, more/less). § Exhibits spontaneous comparison by sorting, classifying, and placingobjects in series; using a variety of properties (size, volume,height, weight, and length) simultaneously. § Begins to measure using standard units in the customary and metric systems (measures inches using a ruler or measuring tape). § Uses picture cookbook to independently measure amountsand follow steps in cooking project. § Estimates how many steps it will take to walk across the room. § Uses conventional vocabulary of measurement (“pound”, “inch”, “cup”). § Uses basic time vocabulary. § Names days of the week. § Orders events in a day. § Compares temperatures (hotter/colder). § Reads calendar according to days, weeks, months. § Demonstrate, explain, and engage child in activities that measure with standard traditional measuring units (measure a table by inches using measuring tape). § Play measuring games with child (e.g., “Which is heavier?” “Which is longer?”). § Provide a variety of measuring tools (tape measures, rulers, balance scales, measuring cups) and opportunities for child to select the tool needed for an appropriate measurement (using a scale to measure the apple’s weight). § Introduce graphing for children to use as a way to show sequences and quantity comparisons. § Provide calendar activities to describe and discuss events according to days, weeks, months. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 41: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE UNDERSTANDING OF PATTERNS, RELATIONS, AND FUNCTIONS USED TO ORGANIZE THEIR WORLD AND FACILITATE PROBLEM SOLVING. Domain 4: General KnowledgeSub-Domain: Mathematics and Numeracy Birth through 8 Months 6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: MATHEMATICS AND NUMERACY PROPERTIES OF ORDERING GOAL 41: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE UNDERSTANDING OF PATTERNS, RELATIONS, AND FUNCTIONS USED TO ORGANIZE THEIR WORLD AND FACILITATE PROBLEM SOLVING. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Develop awareness of sounds, sights, or motor activities that occur regularly in daily routines. §Develops awareness of familiar sequences of events in daily routines. §Begins to develop expectations for familiar sequences of events in daily routines. §Feel, handle, and explore objects with a variety of textures, shapes, and sizes. §Responds to variations in sounds, smells, tastes, and touch. §Label patterns occurring in events and objects (describe a flower or leaf). §Use language to describe patterns (describe pattern/sequence during diaperchanging). § Provide child with toys that involve shapes (blocks, jar lids, plastic containers). §Sing songs, use finger-plays, and read books with repeatable action patterns, familiar objects, colors,and shapes; noting similarities and differences. §Identify and label different shapes in child’s environment. §Offer a variety of touches (gentle, firm) and textures. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: MATHEMATICS AND NUMERACY PROPERTIES OF ORDERING GOAL 41: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE UNDERSTANDING OF PATTERNS, RELATIONS, AND FUNCTIONS USED TO ORGANIZE THEIR WORLD AND FACILITATE PROBLEM SOLVING. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Notice and respond to patterns in daily routines. §Demonstrates expectations for familiar sequences of events in daily routines. §Groups a few objects by color, shape, or size; with assistance. §Begins to match simple two- dimensional shapes in form board and puzzles. §Reaches for utensils when food is placed in front of them. §Understands what clothing is for by putting clothing on like hats, socks, loose pants, and shirts. §Describe and discuss patterns occurring in daily events and familiar objects (actions used to make the jack-in-the-box pop up). §Ask the child to tell, “What comes next? What happens next? Whatdo we do next?” during daily or familiar activities and routines(getting dressed or brushing teeth). §Sing songs, use finger-plays, and read books with repeated action patterns, familiar objects, colors, and shapes; asking the child to help describe similarities and differences. §Ask child to help name objects, shapes, and colors found in the child’s environment. §Provide opportunities for the child to sort and classify familiar objects in meaningful ways (e.g., “Pick up all of the toys that are animals.”). DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: MATHEMATICS AND NUMERACY PROPERTIES OF ORDERING GOAL 41: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE UNDERSTANDING OF PATTERNS, RELATIONS, AND FUNCTIONS USED TO ORGANIZE THEIR WORLD AND FACILITATE PROBLEM SOLVING. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Recall, group, and anticipate familiar sequences of events and use these memories to predict and respond to events. §Shows recognition of sequences of events or objects. §Repeats actions in sequence such as finger-plays. §Plays with shape toys (the round beanbag goes in the round hole; the square beanbag goes in the square hole). §Groups objects on the basis of visual characteristics (shape or color) or themes (functional usessuch as items for scooping). §Classifies everyday objects that go together (shoe/sock, pencil/paper, comb/brush). §With practice and development, uses groupings to create patterns. §Matches simple two-dimensional shapes in form board and puzzles (circles, squares, triangles). §Identifies two geometric shapes (circle, square). §Locate where groups of objects belong in their surroundings (coats are hung up on coat racks or cubbies; paint is located in the art area). §Ask to help put objects where they belong (e.g., “Where do keep the scissors?” “Where do we putthe trucks?”). §Provide opportunities for child to notice and describe patterns in nature (patterns in rocks or shells). §Use shape words in daily life (e.g., “Let’s cut the cornbread intosquares.”). §Identify the features of shapes when child plays with them. §Provide opportunities for child to look for shapes during dailyactivities (e.g., “Where do you see circles?”). §Provide play and art materials that have different shapes (circles, squares, triangles). §Demonstrate, explain, and engage child in activities thatidentify culturally-specific patterning in artwork or objects. §Provide opportunities to help with food preparation, following a specified pattern/sequence. §Play games with pattern/sequences (Duck, Duck;Goose; and Simon Says). §Ask questions and support child’s curiosity (e.g., “What do we use scissors for?” “Do all of these rocks fit in the bucket?” “Will the stick sink in the water?”). DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: MATHEMATICS AND NUMERACY PROPERTIES OF ORDERING GOAL 41: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE UNDERSTANDING OF PATTERNS, RELATIONS, AND FUNCTIONS USED TO ORGANIZE THEIR WORLD AND FACILITATE PROBLEM SOLVING. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Sort, classify, and order objects by color, number, size, or shape. Form simple patterns involving color, number, size, and shape. §Compares shape and size of familiar objects. §Sorts and builds with two- and three-dimensional shapes(sphere, cube, cone). §Identifies and labels different kinds of two-dimensional shapes (square, circle, rectangle, triangle). §Draws and creates pictures using various shapes. §Recognizes non-geometrical shapes in nature (clouds or other things that are not circles, squares, triangles). §Describes characteristics of familiar geometric and non- geometric shapes in theenvironment, with assistance. §Puts together and takes apart shapes to make other shapes (use two triangles to make a rectangle with blocks). §Makes and describes patterns including serialization based onnumbers, shapes, and size. §Predicts what comes next in a pattern and completes the pattern. §Creates or extends a complex pattern with more than two repeating elements. §Provide a variety of increasingly complex materials related to patterns such as puzzles and stringing beads. §Provide opportunities for child to create art projects that useshapes (e.g., “You can draw a house by putting a triangle on topof a square.” “You can draw a rectangle for the door.”). §Engage the child in recognizing shapes in the environment (octagonal stop sign, bowls are circles). §Provide materials that can be connected and combined to create new shapes. §Take child to observe murals or other community artwork; exploring together the variety of shapes used. §Provide picture recipes for children to follow and complete. §Play classification games with child (gather a group of items that include pairs of objects that go together - shoe/sock, flower/vase - find the items that go together). §Play matching games that challenge the child to recognize what is missing. §Play games that challenge the child to describe and identify shapes. §Use a sensory bag or box where the child reaches in, feels anddescribes an object/shape and attempts to name it. §Challenge child to repeat patterns made by clapping, stomping, or with rhythm instruments. §Encourage child to retell stories, recalling a sequence of events(“The Very Hungry Caterpillar” “Goldilocks and the Three Bears”). § Encourage child to act out plays/skits (“Three Little Pigs” “Three Billy Goats Gruff”). § Encourage child to explore ordinal numbers (first, second, third, etc., and last) used todescribe members of a sequence of objects or events. § Ask child to describe or explain a sequence used during a familiar activity or routine and ask, “What comes next? “What comes last?” § Provide materials in shapes that can be used to represent or recreate murals or other art formsin the community. § Ask child to help with the place setting for snack or lunch. § Provide storage for materials that encourage sorting clean up(labeled separate containers for pencils or markers). DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: MATHEMATICS AND NUMERACY PROPERTIES OF ORDERING GOAL 41: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE UNDERSTANDING OF PATTERNS, RELATIONS, AND FUNCTIONS USED TO ORGANIZE THEIR WORLD AND FACILITATE PROBLEM SOLVING. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Sort, classify, and order objects by size, number, shape, and other properties. §Recognizes, names, builds, compares, and sorts two- and three-dimensional shapes (sphere, cube, cone). §Combines shapes to create two- dimensional figures. §Describes characteristics of familiar geometric and non- geometric shapes in the environment, with assistance. §Investigates and predicts the results of putting together and taking apart two- and three-dimensional shapes. §Recognizes and creates shapes that have symmetry. §Recognizes, describes, and extends patterns; and translatesfrom one representation to another. §Describes (using rules/generalizations) and replicates patterns. §Creates own patterns applying determined rules orgeneralizations. §Provide construction materials of varying sizes and shapes for multiple purposes (color strips of paper used to create weaving patterns). §Play games with visual patterns like cards, dominoes, and dice for child to recognize patternarrangements representing specific quantities. §Complete surveys for likes/ dislikes (survey child’s favorite ice cream flavor) and graph results. §Record daily lunch count or weather forecasts and completedata analysis to reveal patterns. §Help child draft/illustrate picture recipes for other children to use. §Play classification games that encourage child to describe,compare/contrast, match, and identify objects simultaneously. §Ask child to use ordinal numbers (first, second, third, etc., and last) to describe or retell stories and events (recalling a trip to the zoo). §Challenge child to make predictions concerning functional patterns in daily routines andactivities (e.g., “What can happen if we don’t count how many wantchocolate milk?). §Provide opportunities for child to observe functional patterns when adding/subtracting. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 42: CHILDREN OBSERVE, DESCRIBE, AND COLLECT INFORMATION BY EXPLORING THE WORLD AROUND THEM. Domain 4: General Knowledge Sub-Domain: Science Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: SCIENCE SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY GOAL 42: CHILDREN OBSERVE, DESCRIBE, AND COLLECT INFORMATION BY EXPLORING THE WORLD AROUND THEM. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through8 Months Show interest in familiar people, objects, and events in their immediate environment. § Observes physical relationships using the senses (turns head toward sounds, mouthing, grasping, reaching). § Shows interest in surroundings by focusing on familiar faces, objectsin close proximity (including plants and animals), and events. § Demonstrates/indicates individual needs (hunger, thirst). § Begins to demonstrate an awareness that people or objects exist after they are no longerpresent (beginning of object permanence). § Provide appropriate space, time, and materials for child to explore (play on the floor with babies and get face-to-face with them; provide easy to grasp objects for them to hold). § Safeguard the environment; maximizing freedom forexploration. § Describe observable natural events (raindrops forming puddles or a squirrel climbing up a tree). § Support and encourage child’s exploration by smiling, nodding, and talking with interest. § Provide a variety of familiar and new materials that can be used in different ways (containers for scooping, putting objects into, and for banging). § Read a variety of picture books with real-life photos anddrawn/painted illustrations of familiar living and nonliving things. § Provide opportunities to play jointly with caregivers and objects (hiding games). § Respect child’s explorations without predetermined outcomesor expectations. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: SCIENCE SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY GOAL 42: CHILDREN OBSERVE, DESCRIBE, AND COLLECT INFORMATION BY EXPLORING THE WORLD AROUND THEM. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months By observing, begins to describe new or unfamiliar toys, objects, people, and events. § Demonstrates interest in surroundings by focusing on familiar and unfamiliar faces, objects in different environmental settings (including plants and animals), and events. § Notices and begins to express individual wants and needs. § After repeated exposure to the same toys and objects, begins to explore new ways of using these materials. § Begins to notice and label objects and events in the environment. § Enjoys outdoor play. § Observes, and may play with and describe water, sand, and mud. § Observes and describes sun and clouds (sun is bright, clouds are white). § Begins to integrate the simultaneous use of more than one sense (uses sight, touch, andhearing by examining and shaking a toy). § Uses senses to explore characteristics of certain living things (scent of flower, rough texture of tree bark). § Shows some understanding of object permanence; looking for people and objects that havedisappeared, with assistance. § Provide appropriate space, time, and materials for child to explore (place child on floor with multi- dimensional objects and open- ended toys like blocks, containers, pots and pans, sand, mud, and water). § Safeguard the environment; maximizing freedom for exploration indoors and outdoors. § Encourage child to label and describe observable natural events (falling leaves and butterflies landing on flowers). § Support and encourage child’s descriptions, discussions, and exploration by smiling, nodding,and asking questions. § Read a variety of picture books with real-life photos or drawn/painted illustrations of familiar and unfamiliar living and nonliving things, and encourage child to point to and describe. § Provide opportunities to play jointly with caregivers, otherchildren, and objects such as participating in an indoor/outdoorobstacle course. § Respect child’s explorations without predetermined outcomes or expectations. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: SCIENCE SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY GOAL 42: CHILDREN OBSERVE, DESCRIBE, AND COLLECT INFORMATION BY EXPLORING THE WORLD AROUND THEM. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Construct and describe simple observable characteristics of objects, people, and events. § With continued exposure to the same toys and objects, explores new and multiple ways of using these materials. § Enjoys and expands on choices for outdoor play. § Enjoys playing with, exploring, and experimenting with water, sand, and mud. § Notices, understands, and expresses individual wants andneeds. § Demonstrates curiosity about the natural environment and identifies or labels the earth’s materials. § Uses senses to identify details of similarities and differences through observation andexploration. § Explores and investigates physical properties of living and nonliving things. § Demonstrates increased understanding of object permanence; looking for peopleand objects that have disappeared. § Encourage child to explore new and unfamiliar toys and objects to find multiple ways for using them. § Provide child with varied opportunities to describe and discuss the similarities anddifferences observed with water, sand, and mud. § Provide child with varied opportunities to play, explore, and experiment with water, sand, and mud; and describe and discuss what they observe using funnels, tubes, containers, and utensils. § Provide child with bubble solution and a variety of wands and household items (ladles withholes, spatulas, funnels, strawberry baskets, straws), andencourage them to describe the bubbles that each item makes. § Support, encourage, and guide child’s observations and explorations by discussing and asking questions about their findings without predetermined outcomes or expectations. § Provide opportunities to label and describe earth’s materials while on nature walks. § Provide opportunities to explore and investigate physical properties of living and nonliving things. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: SCIENCE SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY GOAL 42: CHILDREN OBSERVE, DESCRIBE, AND COLLECT INFORMATION BY EXPLORING THE WORLD AROUND THEM. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Call attention to, describe, discuss, and explain observable similarities and differences among objects or events. § Shows interest and curiosity in exploring, investigating, and words to describe living and nonliving things. § Uses senses to explore materials, objects, and natural phenomena(sand, pine cones, crawling ants). § Makes comparisons and calls attention to details; and with adult assistance, explores the ways in which things are alike and different (notices how shells are the same or different; notices objects that float or sink; listens to different sounds that animals make). § Notices, describes, and predicts changes in the environment (dark clouds mean possible rain). § Observes, compares, classifies, measures, and communicates observations of events and objects. § Explores earth science, physical science, and life science through observations and experimentationwith concrete objects. § Begins to use simple tools (magnifiers, lenses, droppers) for exploration and investigation. § Predicts the outcome of an investigation based on observation or experience. § Demonstrates respect for living things (watering plants, trying to avoid stepping on anthills). § Explores answers to questions, and forms new questions orconclusions. § Provide opportunities to explore, describe, and classify materials, objects, and natural phenomena using various senses (touch snow and feel how cold it is; listen to the sounds that different machines make at a construction site). § Provide opportunities to make and describe nature collages. § Provide opportunities to observe and explore different physical characteristics of living and nonliving things using investigative tools (magnifiers, droppers), with assistance. § Provide opportunities to examine and create nature collections such as rocks, shells, and insects. § Play “I Spy” by describing living and nonliving items in the immediate surroundings for the child to figure out. § Provide opportunities for child to select items and place them in a sensory bag for others to explore,describe, and identify. § Discuss which food items come from plants during snack time. § Compare different seeds found in fruit during snack or cooking. § Compare and describe different flower and vegetable seeds to be planted in a garden or pots. § Provide child with bubble solution and a variety of wands andhousehold items (ladles with holes, spatulas, funnels,strawberry baskets, straws), and encourage them to describe andpredict the bubbles each item makes. § Use lighting and different objects and describe their different shadows. § Provide opportunities to compare and describe the similarities and differences of living and nonliving things with photos or illustrations in books. § Provide opportunities for child to describe living and nonliving items during “show and tell.” DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: SCIENCE SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY GOAL 42: CHILDREN OBSERVE, DESCRIBE, AND COLLECT INFORMATION BY EXPLORING THE WORLD AROUND THEM. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months throughKindergarten Collect, organize, and display results of observations to construct relationships that help them organize and make sense of the natural world. § Uses observations, descriptions, and predictions to examine the natural world around them. § Increases awareness and understanding of the physical world as the child collects,organizes, and displays results of observations andexperimentations. § Makes comparisons based on observations and vocabulary that includes descriptive and comparative words. § Makes inferences, draws more meaning than from what is visible,and predicts future events. § By describing events, compares predictions with what was observed. § Uses scientific tools that are not limited to observations, but also includes locomotion devices(gears and pulleys), technological tools, and measurement devices. § Continue to invite curiosity and interest through experiences that encourage the child to explore, describe, and classify living and nonliving items using various senses (sand and water as it runs through fingers; sounds of different animals; making different size bubbles with household items). § Provide opportunities to organize, discuss, and draw conclusionsbased on observations about living and nonliving things usinginvestigative tools (looking at a caterpillar’s sections throughmagnifier; using different household items to makebubbles). § Provide child with bubble solution and challenge them to find items in the classroom that will make bubbles. § Encourage child to make own drawings, stories, or books aboutliving and nonliving things. § Provide opportunities for child to describe living and nonliving items during “show and tell” for others to figure out. § Provide child with an assortment of investigative tools and devicesto explore and describe, draw, and write about (magnifiers,binoculars, telescopes, and microscopes; weights andbalancing scales; tubes and funnels; bicycle chain and gearsprockets; animal guide books). § Encourage child to discuss how we get food from plants, animals, farms, fields. § Encourage child to assemble the needed materials and describe the different flower and vegetableseeds and the soil mixture needed to plant seeds in a gardenor pots. § Encourage child to observe patterns and make predictions (e.g., “What happens to the limabean planted in soil if it does not get any water?”). § Help child organize needed materials (paper, markers, crayons, scissors) to draw or create collage life cycles of insects, animals, and plants. § Continue to read life cycle books like, The Hungry Caterpillar. § Provide child with the needed writing materials to document, visually organize (create charts, graphs, tables), and display observation results (measuring the height of a sprouted lima bean; daily temperature pattern for one week). IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 43: CHILDREN FURTHER ENGAGE IN EXPLORING AND MAKING SENSE OF THE NATURAL WORLD BY ASKING QUESTIONS AND MAKING PREDICTIONS ABOUT CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONS THAT CAN LEAD TO GENERALIZATIONS. Domain 4: General KnowledgeSub-Domain: Science Birth through 8 Months 6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: SCIENCE SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY—THINKING, ASKING, ACTING, AND SOLVING PROBLEMS GOAL 43: CHILDREN FURTHER ENGAGE IN EXPLORING AND MAKING SENSE OF THE NATURAL WORLD BY ASKING QUESTIONS AND MAKING PREDICTIONS ABOUT CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONS THAT CAN LEAD TO GENERALIZATIONS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Sensory awareness. § Uses senses to begin understanding cause and effect during daily experiences and routines. § Shows surprise when events occur that do not follow expectedsequences (shows surprise when a ball rolls into a tube and doesnot roll out at the opposite end) that may suggest the beginning ofobject permanence. § Begins to observe and predict the people, objects, and events in the world around them. § Create an environment that inspires child to have ideas and figure out how to do something. § Encourage child to try out ideas, make mistakes, and develop contradictions. § Describe safe natural materials (leaves, shells, snow, and food items) and allow for free exploration. § Provide safe environments and responsive materials to explore. § Offer opportunities for infants to use two or more senses simultaneously (hiding a rattle under a blanket or in a box). § Provide toys and materials that can be used in different ways(balls bounce, roll, catch, and can be tossed through hoops and intocontainers). § Refrain from intervening too quickly as child explores sensory experiences. Verbally describe the results of child’s actions. § Caregivers wait for child to gesture or motion a signal for helpor assistance. § Smile, nod, and verbally acknowledge the child’s observations and explorations. § Allow and encourage repetitive activities such as “peek-a-boo.” § Talk with child about objects and events (e.g., “Is that soft, warm?”). DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: SCIENCE SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY—THINKING, ASKING, ACTING, AND SOLVING PROBLEMS GOAL 43: CHILDREN FURTHER ENGAGE IN EXPLORING AND MAKING SENSE OF THE NATURAL WORLD BY ASKING QUESTIONS AND MAKING PREDICTIONS ABOUT CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONS THAT CAN LEAD TO GENERALIZATIONS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Explores cause and effect relations through observation, and trial and error. § Uses senses and initial attempts at trial and error to solve problems. § Attempts to repeat cause and effect events. § Observes, describes, and begins to predict the world around them. § Shows surprise when events occur that do not follow expectedsequences. § With increased motor skills, actively pursues an object that disappears in an unusual location (object permanence). § Begins to problem solve when they use a series of actions, anobject, or a caregiver to reach a goal (pulling a string to reach anattached toy). § Imitates a caregiver’s action(s) to solve a problem. § Begins using trial and error to find a solution to a problem. § Create an environment that inspires child to have ideas and figure out how to do something to cause a reaction (drop a toy from the table). § Encourage child to try out ideas, make mistakes, and develop contradictions. § Encourage child to explore, compare, and describe safe natural materials (leaves, shells, snow, and food items). § Actively promote development of scientific reasoning by providing safe environments andresponsive materials to explore. § Promote development of reasoning and problem-solving skills by making available problem-solving opportunities to observe, experience, and discuss using a variety of materials and encourage experimentation with possible solutions (using containers and utensils to scoop items out of water or hidden in sand). § Provide toys and materials that can be used in different ways to encourage problem solving andexploration (several sizes of container, funnels, or sieve atwater play). § Refrain from intervening too quickly as child explores problem- solving experiences and help point out, describe, and discuss the results of child’s actions. § Wait for child to gesture, motion, or verbally signal for help or assistance. § Acknowledge, encourage, and support explorations and attempts at problem-solving. § Emphasize freedom to explore learning and problem-solving opportunities rather than providing solutions. § Allow and encourage repetitive activities such as dropping and picking up objects. § Model problem-solving behaviors that are developmentally withinchild’s ability to imitate. § Talk with child about natural objects and everyday events (how does food smell, taste, etc.). DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: SCIENCE SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY—THINKING, ASKING, ACTING, AND SOLVING PROBLEMS GOAL 43: CHILDREN FURTHER ENGAGE IN EXPLORING AND MAKING SENSE OF THE NATURAL WORLD BY ASKING QUESTIONS AND MAKING PREDICTIONS ABOUT CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONS THAT CAN LEAD TO GENERALIZATIONS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Vary actions in order to see what happens as a result (cause and effect). § Uses senses, and trial and error to solve problems. § Expands on their ability to observe, describe, and predict theworld around them. § Increases problem solving as they use a series of actions, an object, or a caregiver to reach a goal (pulling a string to reach an attached toy) or intentional outcome. § Imitates and begins to vary a caregiver’s action(s) to solve aproblem. § Uses trial and error to find possible solutions to a problem (moving a puzzle piece around to find the right place). § Create an environment that inspires child to have ideas and figure out how to do something (provide open-ended materials, combinations of materials, and access to a variety of materials). § Encourage child to try out ideas, make mistakes, and developcontradictions. § Encourage child to explore, compare, and describe safe natural materials (leaves, shells, snow, and food items) according to observable similarities and differences. § Actively promote development of scientific reasoning by providingsafe environments and responsive materials to explore. § Promote development of reasoning and problem-solving skills by making available problem-solving opportunities to observe, experience, and discuss using a variety of materials that further encourage experimentation with possible solutions. § Provide toys and materials that can be used in different ways toencourage intentional problem solving and exploration. § Refrain from intervening too quickly as child explores problem- solving experiences, and discuss and experiment with solutions and the results of their experiments. § Wait for child to gesture, motion, or verbalize a request for help orassistance. § Acknowledge, encourage, and support explorations and attempts at problem-solving and new learning. § Emphasize freedom to explore learning and problem-solving opportunities rather than providing or emphasizing predetermined solutions or outcomes. § Ask questions such as “What do you think the ball will do when I drop it?” DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: SCIENCE SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY—THINKING, ASKING, ACTING, AND SOLVING PROBLEMS GOAL 43: CHILDREN FURTHER ENGAGE IN EXPLORING AND MAKING SENSE OF THE NATURAL WORLD BY ASKING QUESTIONS AND MAKING PREDICTIONS ABOUT CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONS THAT CAN LEAD TO GENERALIZATIONS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Investigate unfamiliarphenomena and both trial anderror (sometimes systematictrials), with assistance. § Uses senses and develops strategies (from trial and error) to solve problems. § Explores the use of investigative tools to extend the senses in a trial and error fashion. § Eagerly observes, describes, and predicts the world around them. § As child investigates new phenomena, makes progress from trial and error toward a moresystematic approach to problem solving. § More apt to verbalize observations than ask meaningful questions. § Uses questioning as a way to engage conversation rather thanas an intended means for gathering information. § Shows curiosity and interest about familiar/unfamiliar and living/nonliving things. § Begins to demonstrate respect for living things. § Eagerly observes, describes, and predicts the world around them. § Makes simple predictions and inferences about cause and effect relations based on observations,explorations, and experimentations with objects andevents in the natural world. § Compares their predictions with actual observations. § Begins making predictions about changes in the environment thatlead to generalizations based on understanding. § Create an environment that inspires child to have ideas and figure out how to do something. § Encourage child to try out ideas, make mistakes, and develop contradictions. § Encourage child to actively explore, compare, and describe safe natural materials (leaves, shells, snow, and food items) according to observable similarities and differences. § Encourage child to observe patterns and offer possible predictions through questions(e.g., “What will happen if we put this flower in a vase withoutwater?”). § Provide child with bubble solution and a variety of wands and household items (ladles with holes, spatulas, funnels, strawberry baskets, straws) and encourage them to question and predict what kind of bubbles different types of wands will make. § Provide child sand, water, mud, pebbles, and grain for pouring and help child question what willhappen. § Provide child with simple machines to take apart and put back together (flashlight). § Provide different toys with wheels or differently shaped objects and slopes to observe and questionhow they might move. § Provide child opportunities to explore, observe, and describe the different properties of magnets with different materials (cloth, plastic toys, nuts and bolts, coins). § Provide a variety of natural experiences that encourage child to explore, describe, and classify according to interests (e.g., “Which of these insects crawl and which ones fly?”). § Encourage child to act on their own observations of patterns and make predictions (add more milk to pancake batter during cooking activity). § Encourage child to compare their predictions with what they see(e.g., “Did the pancakes turn out the way you wanted when youadded more milk?”). § Provide opportunities for child to mix colors using paint, play dough, colored water). DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: SCIENCE SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY—THINKING, ASKING, ACTING, AND SOLVING PROBLEMS GOAL 43: CHILDREN FURTHER ENGAGE IN EXPLORING AND MAKING SENSE OF THE NATURAL WORLD BY ASKING QUESTIONS AND MAKING PREDICTIONS ABOUT CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONS THAT CAN LEAD TO GENERALIZATIONS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Plan and conduct simple investigations to explore questions or problems. § Uses senses combined with specific strategies to solve problems and make predictions that lead to generalizations about the world around them. § Uses investigative tools to gather information and extend the senses. § Makes inferences, predictions, and generalizations based on observations and experiences. § Compares predictions with actual observations. § Actively asks questions about objects, organisms, and events in the environment. § Makes predictions about changes in the environment that lead togeneralizations about the natural world. § Eagerly acts on curiosity and interest to organize and plan observations, explorations, and experiments with living and nonliving things and events in the environment. § Respect for living things becomes a personal responsibility. § Begins using gathered information (data) to construct and communicate reasonable explanations. § Create an environment that inspires child to have ideas and figure out how to do something. § Encourage child to try out ideas, make mistakes, and develop contradictions. § Encourage child to act on their own observations of patterns, make predictions and draw pictures, write stories or recipes that reflect outcomes (how to make thicker pancakes; how to make thinner pancakes). § Provide child with an assortment of investigative tools and devicesto explore and make predictions and generalizations aboutobservations (magnifiers, binoculars, telescopes, andmicroscopes; weights and balancing scales; tubes andfunnels; bicycle chain and gear sprockets; animal guide books). § Provide child with an assortment of investigative tools to draw and write about their observations, predictions, and generalizations (which items are magnetic and which items are not?). § Listen to and discuss stories that illustrate changes (seasons, growing plants, animals) and drawpictures and write stories based on generalizations. § Provide child with bubble solution and a variety of wands and household items that will make bubbles (ladles with holes, spatulas, funnels, strawberry baskets, straws) and items that will not. Ask child to display observation results using drawings, tables, or charts. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 44: CHILDREN DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN PEOPLE, PLACES, ACTIVITIES, AND EVENTS IN THE PAST AND PRESENT THAT RELATE TO SELF, GROUP IDENTITY, AND A SENSE OF THEIR COMMUNITY. Domain 4: General KnowledgeSub-Domain: Social Studies Birth through 8 Months 6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL STUDIES Social studies are defined as the integrated study of the social sciences. The social studies curriculum draws upon such disciplines as anthropology, archaeology, economics, geography, history, law, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and world affairs. (Idaho State Department of Education Social Studies Position Statement, 2010-2016) Children learn about government/civics through personal experiences as a family member, as a classroom member, and as a member of the community in which they live. Children start to learn about democracy by having many opportunities to live, work, and resolve problems with others. Preschool experiences help children understand and respect their own history, how people are similar and different from each other, and how people in communities help each other. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL STUDIES SOCIAL STUDIES GOAL 44: CHILDREN DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN PEOPLE, PLACES, ACTIVITIES, AND EVENTS IN THE PAST AND PRESENT THAT RELATE TO SELF, GROUP IDENTITY, AND A SENSE OF THEIR COMMUNITY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through8 Months Demonstrate a sense of comfort with the familiar. § Recognizes and responds to familiar people, places, activities, and events (smiles when dadenters the room). § Begins to anticipate a familiar setting, group, or routines with trusted primary caregivers. § Responds to a familiar sequence of events in daily routines. § Begins to demonstrate awareness and response to familiar activities (songs, stories, lullaby) from the home culture. § Shows trust in a relationship dependent on wants and needssatisfied by caregivers. § Looks to where things are located in the environment. § Begins to recognize that people move in and out of theirimmediate environment. § Shows preferences for one adult over another. § Responds to others emotions (happy, sad, angry, excited,tense). § Build a sense of community by respecting and reflecting child’s home environment. § Talk to and listen respectfully to all children. § Model respect for diversity. § Provide opportunities to begin exploring awareness of self, family, and others through touch, photographs, mirrors, and video and sound recordings. § Point to and describe physical similarities and differences amongfamiliar children and adults during daily activities and routines. § Share books with photos and illustrations of children and adults from different regions, cultures, or countries. § Provide ongoing opportunities for child to observe other children and interact with caregivers infamiliar settings. § Arrange the room, space, and materials/toys so that two or more children (including those with special health concerns/needs) can play alongside each other. § Provide space, time, and materials from the home culture for each child to use and explore as they imitate or attempt to reproduce actions. § Demonstrate, describe, and play pretend play (pretending to eat or drink). § Provide labeled space with child’s printed name and current photo where child’s possessions arekept. § Demonstrate finger-plays and sing songs from the child’s home language or culture. § Display and talk with child about family photos (point to members and describe what is happening inthe picture). DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL STUDIES Social studies are defined as the integrated study of the social sciences. The social studies curriculum draws upon such disciplines as anthropology, archaeology, economics, geography, history, law, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and world affairs. (Idaho State Department of Education Social Studies Position Statement, 2010-2016) Children learn about government/civics through personal experiences as a family member, as a classroom member, and as a member of the community in which they live. Children start to learn about democracy by having many opportunities to live, work, and resolve problems with others. Preschool experiences help children understand and respect their own history, how people are similar and different from each other, and how people in communities help each other. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL STUDIES SOCIAL STUDIES GOAL 44: CHILDREN DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN PEOPLE, PLACES, ACTIVITIES, AND EVENTS IN THE PAST AND PRESENT THAT RELATE TO SELF, GROUP IDENTITY, AND A SENSE OF THEIR COMMUNITY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Engage and respond to familiar people, places, activities, and events within their family, program, community, and culture. § Recognizes and responds to familiar people, places, activities, and events (runs to mother forcomfort; reaches out for favorite toy). § Demonstrates awareness of self and body image (enjoys mirror image and movement). § Anticipates, demonstrates, and begins to express enjoyment inresponse to a familiar setting, group, or routines with trustedprimary caregivers. § Demonstrates expectations for familiar sequence of events in daily routines. § Demonstrates awareness and responds to familiar activities (songs and stories) from thehome culture. § Develops and maintains trusting relationships with primary caregivers and family members. § Begins to engage in cooperative pretend play with peers around familiar activities and routines(cooking, cleaning, yard work). § Increases awareness of where things are located in the environment. § Find ways to build a sense of community through activities that respect and reflect each child’shome environment. § Talk to and listen respectfully to all children. § Model respect for diversity. § Continue to provide opportunities to begin exploring awareness of self and familiar others through touch, photographs, mirrors, and video and sound recordings. § Encourage child to point as an adult describes physical similarities and differences amongfamiliar children and adults during daily activities and routines. § Show books and encourage child to point to photos and illustrations of children and adults from different regions, cultures, or countries. § Provide ongoing opportunities for child to observe and interact withother children and caregivers in familiar settings. § Arrange the room, space, and materials/toys so that two or more children (including those with special health concerns/needs) can play alongside each other § Recognizes that people move in and out of their immediate environment. § Begins to explore familiar environments (within home, child care, familiar spaces). § Pays attention to adult use of common technological devicesand begins to imitate the use of devices (computer, cell phone). § May show interest in daily community routines (lawn mowers, road construction, garbage trucks, trains, plains). and begin to interact and share the toys/materials. § Provide space, time, and materials from the home culturefor each child to use in imitating actions, simple roles, and inpretend play. § Describe and encourage child to play pretend play (pretending to eat or drink). § Provide labeled space with child’s printed name and current photo where child’s possessions arekept and demonstrate how child can retrieve and store personalitems. § Demonstrate and encourage child to participate in finger-plays and sing songs from the child’s home language or culture. § Display child’s family photos and encourage child to point to andname family members. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL STUDIES Social studies are defined as the integrated study of the social sciences. The social studies curriculum draws upon such disciplines as anthropology, archaeology, economics, geography, history, law, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and world affairs. (Idaho State Department of Education Social Studies Position Statement, 2010-2016) Children learn about government/civics through personal experiences as a family member, as a classroom member, and as a member of the community in which they live. Children start to learn about democracy by having many opportunities to live, work, and resolve problems with others. Preschool experiences help children understand and respect their own history, how people are similar and different from each other, and how people in communities help each other. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL STUDIES SOCIAL STUDIES GOAL 44: CHILDREN DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN PEOPLE, PLACES, ACTIVITIES, AND EVENTS IN THE PAST AND PRESENT THAT RELATE TO SELF, GROUP IDENTITY, AND A SENSE OF THEIR COMMUNITY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Actively select and participate in daily activities and routinesreflecting cultural traditions,values, and beliefs with adultsand peers to develop § Begins to recognize and associate different environments, activities, and routines withdifferent people needed to develop awareness of groupmembership. § Points to, identifies, and describes self and others’ mirror images. § Begins to make predictions about what may happen, and connects new experiences to pastexperiences (understands that a parent goes to work and laterreturns home). § Shows recognition of simple sequence in events (naptime is after lunch). § Actively selects and participates in activities and routines with peers and adults. § Increases understanding of where things are located in the environment (outdoor shoes are kept in cubbies; dishes are stored in the kitchen). § Maintains trusting relationships with caregivers and beginsdeveloping trusting relationships with peers. § Actively selects and engages in § Find ways to build a sense of community through activities that respect and reflect each child’shome environment. § Talk to and listen respectfully to all children. § Model respect for diversity. § Provide opportunities to explore, identify, and discuss self and familiar others using photos, mirrors, video and sound recordings. § Encourage child to recognize and discuss similarities and differences among children andadults (hair color, gender). § Encourage child to identify and describe photos and illustrations of children and adults from different regions, countries, or cultures. § Read books and encourage child to point to and describe photos and illustrations of children andadults from different regions, cultures, or countries. § Arrange the room, space, and materials/toys so that two or more children (including those with special health concerns/needs) can play alongside each other awareness of group membership. pretend play with familiar activities and routines (cooking, cleaning, yard work). § Demonstrates an awareness of daily routines (gets coat because it is cold outside). § Begins to recognize the beginning and end of an eventand may recall information about the immediate past. § Begins to identify items in the store that they want. § Begins to develop sense of self in relation to the environment (recognizes house as “my home;”building as “my school”). § Begins to role-play with simple objects and toys (pushing doll stroller, feeding doll with toy bottle, pretends to talk on the phone). and interact through play. § Provide space, time, and materials from the home culture for each child to select and use in imitating actions, simple roles, and in pretend play. § Provide opportunities for each child to play and interact withothers during pretend play (washing baby dolls). § Provide labeled space with child’s printed name and current photo where child’s possessions are kept and encourage child to actively retrieve and store personal items. § Demonstrate and encourage child to actively select and participate in finger-plays and sing songsfrom the child’s home language or culture. § Display or make a class book of children’s family photos and encourage children to point to and name family members. § Make a class book of students’ photos for children to name and describe. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL STUDIES Social studies are defined as the integrated study of the social sciences. The social studies curriculum draws upon such disciplines as anthropology, archaeology, economics, geography, history, law, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and world affairs. (Idaho State Department of Education Social Studies Position Statement, 2010-2016) Children learn about government/civics through personal experiences as a family member, as a classroom member, and as a member of the community in which they live. Children start to learn about democracy by having many opportunities to live, work, and resolve problems with others. Preschool experiences help children understand and respect their own history, how people are similar and different from each other, and how people in communities help each other. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL STUDIES SOCIAL STUDIES GOAL 44: CHILDREN DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN PEOPLE, PLACES, ACTIVITIES, AND EVENTS IN THE PAST AND PRESENT THAT RELATE TO SELF, GROUP IDENTITY, AND A SENSE OF THEIR COMMUNITY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies § Begins to demonstrate awareness of group membership according to differentenvironments, activities, and routines (farmers grow food onthe farm; identifies family members to include mom, dad,siblings, aunts, uncles). § Recognizes physical characteristics of self and others around them (two eyes, one nose, black hair, child who is deaf uses sign language). § Observes, describes, and predicts events around them as they connect new experiences topast experiences (when we go to the park; Sunday, yesterday, wewent to church). § Begins to recognize familiar community helpers and their association with activities, routines, and locations (firefighters, fire truck, fire station; doctor, clinic; policeman, police car). § Develops and maintains trusting relationships with familiar and unfamiliar peers and adultsacross settings, routines, and activities. § Begins to understand own life § Find ways to build a sense of community through activities that respect and reflect each child’shome environment. § Provide opportunities to draw pictures or paint to depict child’s own family and identify members. § Talk to and listen respectfully to all children. § Model respect for diversity. § Encourage child to observe and discuss common physical attributes (such as eyes, ears,and hair). § Explore how individuals have similarities and differences. § Explore how each person is special and unique within theclassroom (children who are taller, shorter, wear glasses orhearing aides). § Ask children about different cultural words or expressions (Chinese or Spanish) used to describe stories or events. § Discuss food preferences and sample different cultural foodsduring snack or lunch. § Provide a variety of materials and 36 to 60 Months Demonstrate awareness of group membership across family, community, program, and culture as they recognize physical characteristics of self and others within daily activities and routines. experience and the different roles of family members. § Understands knowledge and mental relationships used during role play based on home and family themes (playing house, using tools, caring for those who are sick). § Begins to use play money for items in role play situations (playstore). § Uses the term “buy.” § Recognizes that people rely on others for goods and services (mail delivery, health care,market). § Recognizes and uses spatial concepts concerning the beginning and end of an event. § Recalls information about the immediate past. § Uses vocabulary associated with time and sequence (now, today, later) during daily routines and activities. § Constructs geographic concepts and meanings in relation to selfand community (the library book is returned to the library a blockfrom home; uses blocks to construct buildings on MainStreet). § Discusses different people, places, and regions as experienced through books, videos, television. § Role-plays with simple machines and transportation toys (usingtape measure in road construction with blocks). toys for pretend role play (pretending to nurture the doll by feeding and talking to it) in the dramatic play area. § Provide community props (community worker dolls or puppets) for children to explore and pretend play. § Encourage children to talk about family routines during circle time or sharing. § Encourage child to bring family photos; identifying members and describing special events. § Provide picture books illustrating community workers or activities(someone shopping at a shoe store; visiting the dentist office). § Take walks around the neighborhood or field trips to experience places and community. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL STUDIES Social studies are defined as the integrated study of the social sciences. The social studies curriculum draws upon such disciplines as anthropology, archaeology, economics, geography, history, law, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and world affairs. (Idaho State Department of Education Social Studies Position Statement, 2010-2016) Children learn about government/civics through personal experiences as a family member, as a classroom member, and as a member of the community in which they live. Children start to learn about democracy by having many opportunities to live, work, and resolve problems with others. Preschool experiences help children understand and respect their own history, how people are similar and different from each other, and how people in communities help each other. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL STUDIES SOCIAL STUDIES GOAL 44: CHILDREN DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN PEOPLE, PLACES, ACTIVITIES, AND EVENTS IN THE PAST AND PRESENT THAT RELATE TO SELF, GROUP IDENTITY, AND A SENSE OF THEIR COMMUNITY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies § Constructs mental relationships about group membership between people, places, activities, andevents (identifies teammates, recognizes classmates). § Recognizes and generalizes shared and different characteristics in relation to others (everyone has hair but with different colors, textures, length; some children run fast; some children have trouble running). § Makes inferences, predictions, and generalizations about people,activities, and events based on observations and participation inpast and present activities and routines (Joey’s birthday; Davidcelebrates Hanukah). § Demonstrates an understanding of own personal history as part of family, school, and community. § Explains roles and jobs of community workers within systems of service (mail deliverysystem, waste disposal system). § Recognizes and associates different relatives with different locations. Shares and discusses similarities and differences in family travel with peers and adults. § Find ways to build a sense of community through activities that respect and reflect each child’shome environment. § Talk to and listen respectfully to all children. § Model respect for diversity. § Encourage child to explore and discuss physical commonalities and differences (everyone has two eyes but in different colors, shapes, and seeing ability or limitations). § Provide opportunities to explore how each person is special andunique within the classroom. § Explore and record different heights of students on a chart and different advantages or disadvantages of being tall or short. § Observe and discuss how different children walk or run and explore the use of canes, walkers,or wheelchairs. § Prepare, sample, and discuss different cultural foods and relationship to holidays and special occasions. § Explore and discuss different 60 Months throughKindergarten Construct mental relationships about group membership across family, community, school, and culture as they recognize and generalize shared and different characteristics of self and others during daily activities and routines. § Expands on and maintains trusting relationships with familiar and unfamiliar peers and adultsacross settings, routines, and activities. § Examines and explores various family roles in other families to see how they differ from or are the same as their own. § Engages in sophisticated role play with themes and plots (police, firemen, teachers,doctors). § Negotiates role play activity and responsibilities according to logic and perspective taking (e.g., “I’ll be mommy because I’m a girl; you be daddy because you’re a boy.”). § Expresses increased understanding of different people,places, and regions as experienced through books,videos, television. § Expands use of vocabulary associated with time (“now”, “then”, “before”, “after”, “today”, “yesterday”, and “tomorrow”). § Identifies current events in the community and in other areas orregions. § Uses common technological devices (cell phone, gears, hinges, microwave, computers) for designed purposes (uses a calculator in a play store or lemonade stand). § Describes and explains how machines, inventions, andtechnology are used in the home (toaster, vacuum, can opener). § Records and discusses calendar and historical events (yesterday, last week, month, or year). § Recognizes that people meet their needs by sharing, trading,and using money to buy goods and services. § Identifies different means of transportation used today to travel from place to place (airplanes, boats). family structures (size and type of members) using family photos. § Share stories, pictures, and music of one’s own personal life, family, and culture. § Describe and explore through dramatic play families’ variedhabits, celebrations, and lifestyles experienced in their homes. § Continue to provide a variety of literature, field trips, visitors, daily schedule, and calendar activities. § Provide stories and books that reflect the cultural heritage of theUnited States - present, past, real, and fiction. § Invite older family members (parents or grandparents) to describe and discuss historical lifestyles or events (what it was like when grandpa was in grade school). § Identify various community workers (sales clerk, mail carrier) and ask questions regarding howthese jobs are performed and the tools they use. § Use various art forms (dramatic play, blocks, sand, painting, or music) to express different roles and tools needed. § Explore simple machines in guided learning centers (toaster, microwave, egg beater, or turkeybaster). § Make a collage of machines used at school and at home. § Provide children opportunities to describe what they see and passon their way to school. § Use flannel board or building blocks to show location of items in a room or show how the playground looks. § Make and use a map of a familiar area such as child’sneighborhood, school, or classroom. Identify the globe as amodel of the earth. § Graph ways that child or others have traveled. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 45: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS AND UNDERSTANDING OF INDIVIDUAL FAIRNESS, GROUP RIGHTS, AND RESPONSIBILITIES (DEMOCRATIC IDEALS) FOR MEMBERSHIP AND PARTICIPATION IN GROUP ACTIVITIES (SUCCESSFUL CITIZENSHIP). Domain 4: General Knowledge Sub-Domain: Social Studies Birth through 8 Months 6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL STUDIES Social studies are defined as the integrated study of the social sciences. The social studies curriculum draws upon such disciplines as anthropology, archaeology, economics, geography, history, law, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and world affairs. (Idaho State Department of Education Social Studies Position Statement, 2010-2016) Children learn about government/civics through personal experiences as a family member, as a classroom member, and as a member of the community in which they live. Children start to learn about democracy by having many opportunities to live, work, and resolve problems with others. Preschool experiences help children understand and respect their own history, how people are similar and different from each other, and how people in communities help each other. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL STUDIES SOCIAL STUDIES GOAL 45: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS AND UNDERSTANDING OF INDIVIDUAL FAIRNESS, GROUP RIGHTS, AND RESPONSIBILITIES (DEMOCRATIC IDEALS) FOR MEMBERSHIP AND PARTICIPATION IN GROUP ACTIVITIES (SUCCESSFUL CITIZENSHIP). Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Show range of emotions. § Shows awareness of change and routine with emotional response. May object tochanges. § Watches familiar people and responds in relation to their emotions. § Begins to indicate the need for assistance (crying, vocalizing, gesturing) to adults andcaregivers. § Provide a consistent, predictable, caring, responsive environment. § Talk to and respond respectfully by giving the infant attention, eye contact, and wait time to show a reaction. § Model respect for diversity by responding to children with thecustoms and manners of their culture. § Respond promptly to needs. § Acknowledge and name the expression of emotions from theinfant. § Model emotional expressions in socially and culturally appropriate ways. § Provide materials (photographs, books, posters, games, puzzles, foods, dolls) that reflect home,family, community, and the world. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL STUDIES Social studies are defined as the integrated study of the social sciences. The social studies curriculum draws upon such disciplines as anthropology, archaeology, economics, geography, history, law, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and world affairs. (Idaho State Department of Education Social Studies Position Statement, 2010-2016) Children learn about government/civics through personal experiences as a family member, as a classroom member, and as a member of the community in which they live. Children start to learn about democracy by having many opportunities to live, work, and resolve problems with others. Preschool experiences help children understand and respect their own history, how people are similar and different from each other, and how people in communities help each other. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL STUDIES SOCIAL STUDIES GOAL 45: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS AND UNDERSTANDING OF INDIVIDUAL FAIRNESS, GROUP RIGHTS, AND RESPONSIBILITIES (DEMOCRATIC IDEALS) FOR MEMBERSHIP AND PARTICIPATION IN GROUP ACTIVITIES (SUCCESSFUL CITIZENSHIP). Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Show awareness of emotionsfor self and others. § Indicates the need for assistance (crying, vocalizing, gesturing) to adults and caregivers. § Comforts self by sucking, stroking, or hugging familiar objects (blankets or toys). § Responds to emotions expressed by others (crying when otherscry). § Follows simple directions or requests made by caregivers. § Looks to caregivers for assistance and guidance, whenneeded. § Begins to become aware of boundaries for people, objects, activities, and settings (must sit in stroller; dog walks on a leash). § May show interest in self help skills like feeding and dressingthemselves. § May show interest in helping with household and classroom chores like clearing their spot, feeding the dog, sweeping, and cleaning dishes. § Provide a consistent, predictable, caring, responsive environment § Talk to and listen respectfully to all children by giving them your undivided attention, eye contact, and wait time to model the give and take in conversation. § Model respect for diversity. § Respond promptly to needs. § Encourage expression of emotions in socially and culturallyappropriate ways. § Set, discuss, remind, and follow through on simple rules and limits. § Play turn-taking games (rolling a ball) individually or in smallgroups. § Play turn-taking games or activities (putting objects in a container; going down the slide) individually or in small groups. § Provide materials (photographs, books, posters, games, puzzles,foods, dolls) that reflect home, family, community, and the world. § Provide child-sized household items for child to play and work with (cleaning cloths, brooms, kitchens items, garden tools). DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL STUDIES Social studies are defined as the integrated study of the social sciences. The social studies curriculum draws upon such disciplines as anthropology, archaeology, economics, geography, history, law, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and world affairs. (Idaho State Department of Education Social Studies Position Statement, 2010-2016) Children learn about government/civics through personal experiences as a family member, as a classroom member, and as a member of the community in which they live. Children start to learn about democracy by having many opportunities to live, work, and resolve problems with others. Preschool experiences help children understand and respect their own history, how people are similar and different from each other, and how people in communities help each other. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL STUDIES SOCIAL STUDIES GOAL 45: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS AND UNDERSTANDING OF INDIVIDUAL FAIRNESS, GROUP RIGHTS, AND RESPONSIBILITIES (DEMOCRATIC IDEALS) FOR MEMBERSHIP AND PARTICIPATION IN GROUP ACTIVITIES (SUCCESSFUL CITIZENSHIP). Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Regulate their behavior, with adult assistance, to participate in organized, culturally acceptable ways with familiar people, objects, and events. § Actively seeks assistance by approaching adults and using words to express emotions. § Comforts self, as needed, using familiar objects. § Responds to others’ expressed emotions in more complex ways (comforting another child). § Begins to participate as a group member of a family or classroom community (helps clean up, helps prepare snack). § Increases awareness of physical/spatial boundaries (must stay in nursery room; sit at tableto eat snack). § Helps with family, school, and community routines, with adult encouragement and assistance. § May engage in pretend “house” play helping with cleaning, cooking, mowing, painting. § May show interest in community or neighborhood routines (garbage truck, mail truck, lawn mowing, street sweeper). § Provide a consistent, predictable, caring, responsive environment. § Talk to and listen respectfully to all children. § Model respect for diversity. § Respond promptly to requests for assistance. § Encourage expression, recognition, and response toothers’ emotions in socially and culturally appropriate ways. § Establish, discuss, remind, and follow through on simple rules and limits. § Encourage conflict resolution through active listening. § Help to ensure that child’s messages are understood by others. § Provide materials (photographs, books, posters, games, puzzles,foods, dolls) that reflect home, family, community, and the world. § Provide opportunities for child to assist and help with daily routines (clearing their spot, pouring their milk, wiping the table, sweeping the floor). DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL STUDIES Social studies are defined as the integrated study of the social sciences. The social studies curriculum draws upon such disciplines as anthropology, archaeology, economics, geography, history, law, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and world affairs. (Idaho State Department of Education Social Studies Position Statement, 2010-2016) Children learn about government/civics through personal experiences as a family member, as a classroom member, and as a member of the community in which they live. Children start to learn about democracy by having many opportunities to live, work, and resolve problems with others. Preschool experiences help children understand and respect their own history, how people are similar and different from each other, and how people in communities help each other. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL STUDIES SOCIAL STUDIES GOAL 45: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS AND UNDERSTANDING OF INDIVIDUAL FAIRNESS, GROUP RIGHTS, AND RESPONSIBILITIES (DEMOCRATIC IDEALS) FOR MEMBERSHIP AND PARTICIPATION IN GROUP ACTIVITIES (SUCCESSFUL CITIZENSHIP). Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Follow simple rules and limits. Begin to participate cooperatively in organized, culturally acceptable ways with familiar people, objects, settings, and events. § Shows increased ability to recognize own feelings, control behavior, and follow simple rulesand limits. § Shows increasing ability to choose acceptable behaviors in group situations. § Shows increased capacity to monitor own behavior; following and contributing to classroomprocedures. § Uses most materials safely and purposefully in different contexts and settings. § Manages most transitions and changes in routines. § Recognizes their roles as part of a group. § Shows awareness of group rules and the ability to follow rules. § Begins to understand reasons or logic assigned to different rules. § Begins to demonstrate respect for rules at home, school, and community. § Observes that people have needs and wants. § Begins to initiate sharing with the support of adults. § Provide a consistent, predictable, caring, responsive environment for child. § Talk to and listen respectfully to all children. § Model respect for diversity. § Encourage child to verbally express and respond to others’ emotions in socially and culturally appropriate ways. § Encourage child to actively discuss, establish, and remind others to follow through on simplerules and limits within the learning community. § Model empathy, understanding, and self control. § Give child appropriate words to express emotions. § Introduce sharing. § Encourage conflict resolution through active listening and simple questioning. § Help to ensure that child’s messages are understood by others through discussion and questioning. § Conduct group meetings, modeling listening and turn-taking § Begins to identify individuals who are helpful to people in their everyday lives (principal, police officer). § Begins to take own initiative to be helpful to family, school, and community. § Demonstrates an understanding of the need for leadership in the family, school, and community. § Begins to demonstrate respect for the opinions, feelings, and actionsof others. § Demonstrates the ability to make choices and take responsibility for own actions. skills within discussions related to justice, fairness, community welfare, and individual rights based on real-life contexts (takingaway toys or materials without permission; knocking over blockstructure). § Create meaningful community jobs that foster respect and responsibility. § Provide opportunities to be “the leader” or “helper.” § Provide materials (photographs, books, posters, games, puzzles, foods, dolls) that reflect home, family, community, and the world. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL STUDIES Social studies are defined as the integrated study of the social sciences. The social studies curriculum draws upon such disciplines as anthropology, archaeology, economics, geography, history, law, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and world affairs. (Idaho State Department of Education Social Studies Position Statement, 2010-2016) Children learn about government/civics through personal experiences as a family member, as a classroom member, and as a member of the community in which they live. Children start to learn about democracy by having many opportunities to live, work, and resolve problems with others. Preschool experiences help children understand and respect their own history, how people are similar and different from each other, and how people in communities help each other. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: SOCIAL STUDIES SOCIAL STUDIES GOAL 45: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS AND UNDERSTANDING OF INDIVIDUAL FAIRNESS, GROUP RIGHTS, AND RESPONSIBILITIES (DEMOCRATIC IDEALS) FOR MEMBERSHIP AND PARTICIPATION IN GROUP ACTIVITIES (SUCCESSFUL CITIZENSHIP). Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Monitor and regulate behavior, emotions, and actions required to successfully and cooperatively participate with familiar and unfamiliar people, objects, settings, and events in varying group arrangements. § Actively monitors and regulates own behavior, emotions, and actions needed to successfullyparticipate cooperatively in a variety of activities. § States own feelings, needs, and opinions; and can also recognize others’ feelings, needs, and opinions (perspective taking). § Uses perspective taking to resolve conflict without harming self, others, or property. § Demonstrates respect and appreciation for the opinions and recognizes others’ feelings and actions. § Names rules and the reasons for them. § Discusses how groups make decisions and solve problems. § Identifies ways to be helpful to family and school. § Participates cooperatively with self-direction in classroom events that promote community interdependence. § Manages transitions and changes in routines throughout the day. § Demonstrates ways to be helpful § Provide a consistent, predictable, caring, responsive environment for child. § Talk to and listen respectfully to all children. § Model respect for diversity. § Take the lead when identifying, explaining, and discussing group procedures used within the learning community; elaborating on their own thoughts, feelings, reactions, and ideas. § Consistently model empathy, understanding, and self-control. § Emphasize socially and culturally appropriate ways to express emotions. § Encourage child to coach active conflict resolution with peers, modeling empathy andunderstanding. § Conduct group meetings, encouraging active selection of topics and participation in discussions related to justice, fairness, community welfare, and individual rights within real-life contexts that allow for leadership experiences. § Create, discuss, and negotiate to the environment and the community; and understands why it is important. § Demonstrates understanding of how people in the community help each other and encourage others to help. § Takes initiative to be helpful and encourages others’ cooperationwithin the family, school, and community. § Names rules and demonstrates that child understands the reasons for rules and the need to follow them in relation to self and others. meaningful community jobs that foster respect and responsibility. § Create community projects (cleanup playground, recycling). § Provide materials (photographs, books, posters, games, puzzles, foods, dolls) that reflect home, family, community, and the world. § Observe and discuss real-world rules and regulations (trafficsigns, public library lending rules). § Identify and discuss community leaders and responsibilities (mayor, police captain, librarian, fire station captain). IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 46: CHILDREN USE CREATIVE ARTS TO EXPRESS AND REPRESENT WHAT THEY KNOW, THINK, BELIEVE, OR FEEL. Domain 4: General Knowledge Sub-Domain: Creative Arts Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: CREATIVE ARTS EXPRESSION AND REPRESENTATION GOAL 46: CHILDREN USE CREATIVE ARTS TO EXPRESS AND REPRESENT WHAT THEY KNOW, THINK, BELIEVE, OR FEEL. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through8 Months Responds to light, color, sound, texture, and motion. § Gazes at pictures, photographs, and mirror images. § Seeks visual complexity such as light and dark or strongpatterns. Visually tracks moving colorful objects or persons. § Enjoys repetition. § Imitates sounds, facial expressions, and gestures ofanother person. § Responds to music and dancing in caregiver’s arms. § Actively describe to child what you see. § Imitate and respond appropriately to child’s sounds. § Sing songs to and with child (working around the house or classroom, or waiting for the bus). § Provide visual and tactile textures for child to see and touch. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: CREATIVE ARTS EXPRESSION AND REPRESENTATION GOAL 46: CHILDREN USE CREATIVE ARTS TO EXPRESS AND REPRESENT WHAT THEY KNOW, THINK, BELIEVE, OR FEEL. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Responds to visual, auditory, tactile stimulation with kinesthetic and sensory exploration. § Experiments with a variety of sound sources (rattles, bells). § Explores sounds by making changes in pitch and loudness,and mimicking animal sounds. § Exhibits an increased variety of movements to express self using different body parts. § Dances or moves to music. § Imitates sounds or actions of an animal or object. § Experiments with a variety of art materials (paint, markers, crayons, pencils). § Shows preferences for colors, textures, shapes, and sizes. § Tries on dress-ups and simple costumes for play, dancing, or just for the sake of trying on the item. § Engage the child in experiments with safe materials like sand, water, colored paper, crayons, markers, flannel, natural materials like grass, snow, and sticks. § Provide simple choices of medium for exploration. § Provide safe rattles and other toys that make sounds. § Provide creative movement experiences using toys and materials like scarves and musicalinstruments (free dance, imitate animals, recreate favorite storiesand routines, finger plays), § Provide open ended toys that foster creativity that can be multi- purpose (blocks, scarves, dress- up clothing that represents more than one theme). § Sing and dance while holding child. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: CREATIVE ARTS EXPRESSION AND REPRESENTATION GOAL 46: CHILDREN USE CREATIVE ARTS TO EXPRESS AND REPRESENT WHAT THEY KNOW, THINK, BELIEVE, OR FEEL. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Use singing, drawing/painting,and movement to express selfand make meaning ofexperiences. § Makes up rhymes and songs. § Uses a variety of materials for tactile experience and exploration (paint, glue, 3-dimensionalmaterials, musical instruments, dance). § Engages in messy play activities such as painting, water-play, and building sand structures. § Engages in the artistic process with enthusiasm. § Explores various ways of moving with or without music. § Explores simple songs using voice and/or instruments. § Makes up songs and uses the voice as the primary instrument. § Engages in pretend play with hats, clothing props, shoes,purses, and other props. § Enjoys picture books; especially with photographs of familiar objects or places. § Engages in spontaneous and imaginative play using a variety of materials to dramatize stories andexperiences. § Uses objects for more than one purpose (big hat used for a baby carrier). § Express a sense of appreciation of works of art, (those created by the child and those created by others). § Exhibit child’s artwork in places it can be viewed by the child andeasily admired. § View art materials as meaningful and provide a space for their use. § Introduce child to a variety of art materials and allow open-endedexploration. § Provide opportunities to finger paint with non-toxic colors (provide opportunities to paint with a large brush and 1 or 2 colors at a low easel). § Engage the child in the use of simple musical instruments (rhythm sticks, drums, andtambourine). § Display local and classic art forms from child’s cultural background. § Expose child to a variety of live and recorded music. § Provide puppets, dress-up clothing, and other props to encourage dramatic play, and family and career play. § Provide creative movement experiences using toys andmaterials like scarves and musical instruments (free dance, imitateanimals, recreate favorite stories and routines, finger plays). § Provide access to easy clean-up for those children who dislike messy activities. § Help children “piggy back” new songs on tunes they already know(Twinkle, Twinkle tune with words that describe sweeping the floor. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: CREATIVE ARTS EXPRESSION AND REPRESENTATION GOAL 46: CHILDREN USE CREATIVE ARTS TO EXPRESS AND REPRESENT WHAT THEY KNOW, THINK, BELIEVE, OR FEEL. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Uses artistic expression and language to communicate emotions and make meaning of experiences. § Participates in group music experiences (sings, finger plays, chants, musical instruments). § Explores simple songs using voice and/or instruments. § Remembers the words to an oft- repeated song. § Makes up songs and uses the voice as the primary instrument. § Asks to sing a particular song. § Participates freely in dramatic play activities (pantomimesmovement of familiar things, acts out stories, re-enacts events fromhis/her own life). § Tries one type of art many times (painting at easel several days in a row, using different colors, or covering the whole paper with paint). § Uses a variety of media and tools to create original works of art. § Creates art work with details representing ideas, experiences, and feelings. § Performs simple elements of drama (audience, actors, stage). § Pretends to be on stage and uses a microphone to sing. § Uses clay and other medium to create three-dimensionalsculptures. § Point out various types of art and materials found in books, photographs, and on the computer. § Engage the child in daily creative art activities using a variety ofmaterials (watercolors, collage materials, paints, paper, scissors,glue, crayons). § Provide opportunities for child to express feelings and recreate experiences through art, movement, and drama. § Provide a variety of supplies, time, and space for artisticexploration and expression. § Involve child in diverse musical activities (song, dance, rhythm, playing musical instruments) from his/her own and other cultural backgrounds. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: CREATIVE ARTS EXPRESSION AND REPRESENTATION GOAL 46: CHILDREN USE CREATIVE ARTS TO EXPRESS AND REPRESENT WHAT THEY KNOW, THINK, BELIEVE, OR FEEL. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months throughKindergarten Display a repertoire of skills for using tools of art, music, andvocabulary to show knowledgeand feelings. § Uses music to express thoughts, feelings, and energy. § Expresses his/her feelings and ideas through creative art, drama,and movement. § Uses simple instruments such as rhythm sticks, tambourines, or drums to create rhythm, beat, and patterns. § Shows interest in more complicated instruments (piano,guitar, marimba, drums). § Enjoys singing, making up silly and rhyming verses, imitating rhythmic patterns, and using music to tell stories and express feelings. § Develops ability to plan and work, both alone and with others; and to demonstrate care, persistence,and elaboration in a variety of art projects. § Illustrates dictated books, adds words to illustrations, and then illustrations to dictated words. § Uses a variety of media to express ideas, experiences, andemotions. § Finds new ways to use objects and media for creative expression (combining paper cups, collage scraps, and carpentry to make a mobile). § Provide child with an assortment of art materials that are readily available to the child on a daily basis. § Display art projects completed by child, as well as copies of classicart, if possible. § Take child on trips to museums and community centers to view what other people have created and to share ideas and feelings about art. § Take child to music, dance, and theatre performances. § Encourage child to draw, paint, sing, or move the way he/she feels. § Introduce child to more complex musical instruments (guitar, piano) and instruments fromdiverse cultures. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 47: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE UNDERSTANDING AND APPRECIATION OF CREATIVE ARTS. Domain 4: General Knowledge Sub-Domain: Creative Arts Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: CREATIVE ARTS UNDERSTANDING AND APPRECIATION GOAL 47: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE UNDERSTANDING AND APPRECIATION OF CREATIVE ARTS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Sensory exploration. § Shows interest in sounds, tones, voices, music, colors, and shapes. § Interacts with others through touch and motion. § Reacts to sensory aspects of light, sound, color, texture, and movement. § Expose child to a range of voice sounds (singing, speaking, and humming). § Show an enjoyment of music and participate in musical activities around child (sing aloud). § Sing songs with child. § Dance and move with child. § Provide visual stimulation with a variety of colors, patterns, and pictures within child’s visual spaces. § Provide a range of safe textures for child to explore. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: CREATIVE ARTS UNDERSTANDING AND APPRECIATION GOAL 47: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE UNDERSTANDING AND APPRECIATION OF CREATIVE ARTS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Respond to visual, auditory, tactile stimulation with kinesthetic and sensory exploration. § May enjoy looking at children’s books of dance, music, theatre, and visual arts. § May enjoy rhythms and songs. § Prefers repetition of familiar songs and rhythmic patterns. § Responds to light, color, patterns, and textures. § May show interest in tactile experiences like sand, water, mud, and soft or hard surfaces. § May show interest in art materials (crayons, markers, pens, paper, notebooks). § Expose child to music from a variety of cultures and styles (jazz, rock, world beat, Latin, classical). § Take walks with child and explore shapes, color, and light in theimmediate environment. § Comment aloud when you see interesting colors, pictures, or a nice view. § Provide a thoughtful and aesthetic environment. § Provide cultural images within the child’s environment. § Dance and move with the child. § Provide opportunities for child to work with and explore art materials like natural materials and art materials. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: CREATIVE ARTS UNDERSTANDING AND APPRECIATION GOAL 47: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE UNDERSTANDING AND APPRECIATION OF CREATIVE ARTS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Explores tools to create light, color, image, music, movement, and textures. § Observes and responds to artwork produced by other individuals and/or cultures. § Imitates movement after participating in or watching others perform games, dance, or songs. § Exhibits interest when watching musical, dance, or theatre performances by other individuals. § Identifies favorite storybook characters. § May show interest and work with different art materials like play dough, crayons, markers, scissors, pens, paper, notebooks, book making. § Engage child in daily musical activities, games, instruments, singing, and books. § Display the work of artists through prints, posters, paintings, and books from child’s own andother cultural backgrounds. § Provide multiple opportunities for child to listen to music of all cultures and styles. § Provide multiple opportunities for child to dance and move to music of many cultures. § Provide opportunities for child to work with and explore art materials such as natural materials, art materials, and open- ended materials like paper cups, cotton balls, pipe cleaners. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: CREATIVE ARTS UNDERSTANDING AND APPRECIATION GOAL 47: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE UNDERSTANDING AND APPRECIATION OF CREATIVE ARTS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Respond to and create symbolic and representation art, music, dance, and dramatic themes. § Watches other children dance and then tries to mimic the dance steps. § Listens attentively at a children’s concert, play, or puppet show. § Hums or moves to the rhythm of recorded music. § Shares various forms of art found in own environment. § Wonders about or asks questions about works of art, paintings, songs, dance, and theatre. § Attend and view live musical performances with child. § Engage the child in various forms of dramatic expression (puppetry,story-telling, dance, plays, pantomime, theater). § Engage child in the observation and expression of what was seen when watching people from a variety of cultures creating art. § Provide opportunities for child to watch people creating arts and crafts. § Involve child in musical experiences that reflect diverse cultures (singing, dancing, listening, acting). § Arrange for long-term art projects (mural, beading, music, dance, weaving, carving, and mask-making) with guest artists from child’s own and other culturalbackgrounds. DOMAIN 4: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE SUB-DOMAIN: CREATIVE ARTS UNDERSTANDING AND APPRECIATION GOAL 47: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE UNDERSTANDING AND APPRECIATION OF CREATIVE ARTS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Chooses and has opinions about aesthetic likes and dislikes, recognizes familiar cultural forms and shows, and is willing to explore new forms. § Describes all art forms and considers potential intentions of the artist. § Appreciates the artistic creations of others; the skill of a dancer; or someone’s ability to play amusical instrument, sing, or act. § Exhibits excitement when a picture or sculpture reminds him/her of people, objects, or events in own life. § Comments on the artwork of other children, asking simplequestions about methods used and noticing details. § Take child on field trips to museums or street fairs and encourage child to identify his/her favorite painting or object and discuss why. § Talk about feelings and opinions after seeing a performance or looking at a piece of art. § Provide child with experiences of art forms and performing groups from their own and other cultural backgrounds. § Take child on field trips to dance, musical and theatre events and performances (communityprograms, school performances, fairs, and traditional culturalpresentations). DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY INTRODUCTION Communication, language, and literacy are recognized as essential for all individuals to function in all societies. The acquisition of language and literacy skills is a complex process during which, over the course of only a few years, children learn the meaning andstructure of words, how to use words to convey meaning, and how to understand and use printed materials. Language plays a centralrole in the child’s ability to build relationships by sharing meaning with others. Skills for speaking and writing, and listening andreading are key components. In acquiring language, children gain the ability to articulate ideas and feelings, share them with others,and respond to the ideas and actions of other people. RATIONALE When language is acquired, an incredibly complex and powerful system is at the child’s fingertips. The ability to communicate effectively - through oral language, the written word, and alternate means (especially for children with speech, language, and hearingdisabilities) - is essential for a broad range of activities that characterize daily living. To participate in a broad range of daily activities,children need the ability to communicate effectively through oral language, the written word, creative expression, and a variety of othermeans. Language is also a mediator of social competence. Children use language as a tool to express their thoughts, feelings, andideas to others; and to receive, understand, and interpret communications from other people. Children acquire language skills in the context of a culture. No matter which language is being learned (e.g. English, American Sign Language, Spanish); the vital role of children’s opportunities to practice the language cannot be neglected. Language is fundamentally embedded in children’s everyday relationships and experiences. Parents, primary caregivers, and teachers play a critical role in facilitating young children’s language and literacy development by providing exposure to language and print-rich environments, interactions, and opportunities. GENERAL DEFINITION The IdahoEarly Learning eGuidelines define communication, language development, and literacy skills as separate components in order to highlight the essential aspects of each. However, the three components are inextricably interrelated. The development of oral language forms the foundation for early literacy development, just as the ability to communicate early in life impacts the development of vocabulary and speech. COMMUNICATION Communication is both making meaning of what is being communicated by others, and communicating ideas to others. Children communicate before mastering symbolic language. Their “communicative competence” is dependent upon a complex set of skills including, but not limited to, awareness of the social conventions of language usage; and the ability to listen, to understand, and to follow verbal conversation. Development of communication skills requires an understanding of the social context within which communication occurs, knowledge of the goals of the interaction, and the elements of emotion in communication. Children learn a variety of styles of communication and ways of expressing emotions, which are determined by the specific social setting; whether it is in the home, at preschool, on the playground, a cultural event, or at a store. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Language is the acquisition of linguistic forms and procedures, social rules, and customs for expressing and interpreting thoughts, feelings, and ideas. This knowledge of language has three key aspects: content (vocabulary and meaning), form, (grammatical structure or syntax), and use (function). As children learn the sound system, the meaning of words, and the rules of form and grammar, they begin to use language constructively in social situations. LITERACY Literacy, as defined in the Idaho Early learning eGuidelines, involves the ability to use language, symbols, and images in a variety of forms to read, write, listen, speak, represent, observe, and think critically about ideas. Emergent literacy (acquired during the earlyyears of life) refers to skills and behaviors that are precursors to conventional forms of reading and writing. These include visualexpression, oral language, emergent reading, print awareness, and writing processes. SUPPORTING INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, LANGUAGE, AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY Children learn words and forms of language to express their thoughts, feelings, and ideas. They also learn language to meet personal and social objectives as determined by the community and culture within which they live and grow. Several million young children in the United States speak a language other than English in their homes. Children benefit cognitivelyfrom learning two or more languages. The ability to communicate in more than one language supports children’s cognitive flexibilityand an awareness of their own thinking about words as symbols. Children learn second languages in two ways; either by acquiring two or more languages at the same time, or by learning a second language after mastering the “home language” (i.e., first language learned and primary language used at home). Children who follow the former path to dual language learning (i.e., simultaneous learning of more than one language) are said to be “bilingual,” as a first language. Children who learn two languages from birth operate with two separate language systems and it is typical that they may mix words from the two languages in the same sentence for a short time. For children who follow the latter path to dual language learning (i.e., sequential learning of more than one language), their competence in the home language can be supported while they are learning a second language. Rather than focusing on one language over another, the child can acquire both with support for achieving growth and fluency in both languages. Some children go through a “silent period” when learning a second or third language. Parents, educators, and caregivers can continue to talk to children and give them time to speak in the second language when they are ready. If their home language is actively supported and valued, children will learn English or another language faster. Given the growing number of young children in Idaho whose home language is not English, the eGuidelines provide indicators and strategies to support the development of children’s home language while helping children acquire beginning proficiency in English. Children’s communication, language, and literacy may be impacted by visual, hearing, neurological, or motor disabilities. While it may take some children months to acquire aspects of language, it may take other children considerably longer. Delays in language development may indicate that a child has a hearing loss or developmental delay or disorder. Early diagnosis and intervention for language delays are critically important. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 48: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE THE MEANING OF LANGUAGE BY LISTENING. Domain 5: Communication, Language, and Literacy Sub-Domain: Communication Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: COMMUNICATION LISTENING GOAL 48: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE THE MEANING OF LANGUAGE BY LISTENING. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Respond to environmental sounds and recognize familiar voices. § Turns to locate the source of a sound. § Orients to speaker in response to communication. § Visually attends to familiar object with verbal cue. § Reaches for familiar objects with verbal cue. § Shows a preference for human voice to other sounds. § Vocalizes or gestures in response to another person’s voice orgesture. § Recognizes familiar sounds and voices. § Play with noise-producing objects (bells, rattles, crinkly paper, music-box). § Encourage child to orient to sounds that occur near him/her by turning, looking, reaching, ormoving in the direction of the sound. § Exaggerate vocal patterns (whisper, hum, sing, laugh) while talking to the baby. § Talk to the baby frequently during daily care-giving routines(bathing, dressing, feeding, play) and vary pitch, intonation, andintensity. § Interact with the baby during play with toys, rattles, and books. Use lots of expression on the face and in the voice. § Read stories and nursery rhymes. § Play a variety of music. § Rock and move child to the rhythm of music. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: COMMUNICATION LISTENING GOAL 48: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE THE MEANING OF LANGUAGE BY LISTENING. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Recognize names for familiar people and objects. Respond to simple requests. § Reaches for familiar objects with verbal cue. § Shows understanding of words by appropriate behavior or gesture(pointing to, hugging, smiling, crawling towards, reaching). § Imitates adult actions that go along with simple songs, rhymes, and traditional songs (“Row, Row, Row Your Boat,” “Pinpon,” “Eensy Weensy Spider”). § Follows single-step directions (e.g., “Please bring me the ball.”). § Name objects in the environment. § Play simple games that require a physical response (peek-a-boo, pat-a-cake) and sing traditionalsongs and finger plays. § Read stories and talk about pictures. § Give simple one-step directions. § Respond to the baby’s sounds, offering a duet of sound, response, sound, etc. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: COMMUNICATION LISTENING GOAL 48: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE THE MEANING OF LANGUAGE BY LISTENING. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Understand increasingly complex statements and requests. § Shows understanding of words by appropriate behavior or gesture; receptive language. § Locates items with verbal cue. § Performs simple actions with verbal cue (jump, wave, get, come). § Locates familiar objects, people, and body parts. § Listens to short and simple stories; read and told. § Responds to two-step directions (e.g., “Go into your bedroom and get your socks.”). § Play games that require the child to locate an object or person, or follow simple directions (find a ball, point to your eye). § Read books and name pictures. § Use puppets and other props when reading or telling stories. § Include songs and stories from child’s home language in groupactivities. § Assist child to speak on the telephone and encourage the child to listen to the person on the other end. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: COMMUNICATION LISTENING GOAL 48: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE THE MEANING OF LANGUAGE BY LISTENING. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Understand messages in conversations, directions,music, and stories. §Attends to simple stories. §Follows simple oral directions. §Gains information and understanding through listening. §Understands messages in conversation. §Listens to finger plays, stories, and nursery rhymes. §Selects specific details in a story and repeats them. §Listens to others in a group discussion for a short period. §Responds to questions with appropriate answers. §Attends to an adult or peer who is speaking. §Follows multiple-step oral directions. §Attends to complex stories. §Has a growing ability to discern fantasy from reality. §Is working on understanding yesterday, today, and tomorrow. §Provide child with pictures or other materials including familiar objects to stimulate talking and discussion. §Increase the length and complexity of books you read andstories that you tell child. §Talk with child about pictures and accompanying stories in books, magazines, and catalogs. §Facilitate listening skills as children talk with each other (e.g. “Let’s listen to Susie tell about hernew cat.”). §Play games with child that require listening and understanding (Simon Says, Red Light/Green Light). §Provide English Language Learner (ELL) or child learningany other language with opportunities to participate in andunderstand a second language without translation (use gestures,props, pictures, demonstration). §Provide tape-recorded stories from the child’s home culture and in the child’s home language. §Provide opportunities for child to be heard. §Create times when children in groups come together to listen to information. §Provide a listening center for child to listen to books, music, or other media. §Provide clear instructions that help child move from simple directions to an increasingly complex sequence of actions. §Ask questions and give prompts about events in the past, present, and future. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: COMMUNICATION LISTENING GOAL 48: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE THE MEANING OF LANGUAGE BY LISTENING. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Interpret messages in conversations, directions, music, and stories with increased complexity. § Attends to book reading/story telling for at least five minutes. § Listens to others and responds in group conversations anddiscussions. § Notices different tones and cadences (recognizes the difference between humorous and serious voice inflection). § Enjoys listening to stories from different sources (in person, onthe radio). § Provide opportunities for child to be heard, to promote listening skills during group conversations (child must listen when other children speak). § Create times when children in groups come together to listen to information (elder tells storyduring circle time; caregiver explains significance of totempole characters). § Listen to an audio story, a story on the radio, or musical selection with child and help him/her to interpret the story (through words, art forms, dance, acting). IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 49: CHILDREN COMMUNICATE EFFECTIVELY. Domain 5: Communication, Language, and Literacy Sub-Domain: Communication Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: COMMUNICATION ORAL COMMUNICATION GOAL 49: CHILDREN COMMUNICATE EFFECTIVELY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Begin communication withfacial expressions and vocalplay to interact with others. § Initiates communication by smiling and eye contact. § Changes volume and pitch to convey meaning. § Imitates sounds, signs, or gestures. § Repeat baby’s sounds with interacting and give time to respond. § Tune into the different ways baby attempts to communicate and offer an appropriate response. § Respond to baby’s crying and interpret baby’s signals. § Interpret and give meaning to what child says—may be a gesture to start with (e.g., “Youare saying baba. Do you want your bottle?” “You are reachingfor the cup. Do you want the cup?”). § When speaking, vary inflection, volume, and tone. § Get excited when your baby talks to you; pay attention and smile or react with exaggeratedappropriate facial and body expressions. § Match your facial expressions with expressed emotions. § Recognize that a baby with certain physical disabilities, such as a cleft palate, might need moreassistance in overcoming communication difficulties. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: COMMUNICATION ORAL COMMUNICATION GOAL 49: CHILDREN COMMUNICATE EFFECTIVELY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Progress to more structured sounds, words, and gestures to interact with others. § Imitates sounds, signs, or gestures. § Engages in vocal play and turn- taking. § Matches facial expression, tone, and words with response. § Makes new sounds: attempts to say words. § Babbles using intonation and tone to convey meaning. § Uses single-word sentences. § Initiates communication using words, signs, and gestures. § Include signs and gestures in daily routines. § Play simple games with turn- taking. § Name body parts, familiar objects, situations, and events. § Sing to and encourage child to join in through body movements. § Use a lot of descriptive talk (describe what child sees, what child is doing, etc.). DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: COMMUNICATION ORAL COMMUNICATION GOAL 49: CHILDREN COMMUNICATE EFFECTIVELY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Develop communication by moving from simple word combinations and gestures tomore complex interactions. § Initiates communication using jargon, words, signs, and gestures. § Changes intonation and tone to convey meaning of words. § Uses sound effects in play. § Uses descriptors to describe object or event. § Vocalizes wants and needs. § Uses phrases or short sentences. § Uses pronouns to refer to self (e.g., “Me do it.”). § Asks and answers simple questions. § May tell simple stories and recount events. § Uses non-verbal gestures and body language to express needsand feelings (gives spontaneous hug). § Addresses listener appropriately to get attention (when speaking to another child, uses child’s name). § Ask open-ended questions to elicit response (e.g., “What is the kitty doing?”). § Rephrase a child’s utterances into sentences/questions. § Engage child in conversations about daily routines. § Play games with more complex rules when child is ready. § Model appropriate and grammatically correct language. § Listen to child and give him/her time to respond. § Provide opportunities for child with communication difficulties to use nonverbal ways to express self so he/she feels that attempts to communicate are valued. § Provide opportunities for child to communicate with other children. § Expand and respond with the correct pronunciation when child mispronounces a word (e.g., child says, “tar” and adult responds by saying, “Yes, a red car.”). DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: COMMUNICATION ORAL COMMUNICATION GOAL 49: CHILDREN COMMUNICATE EFFECTIVELY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Use communication with purpose to convey a message. § Asks and answer simple questions (what, where, when). § Relays a simple message. § States opinions and preferences using words, signs, or picture boards. § Speaks clearly enough to be understood by most listeners. § Describes objects and events in detail. § Initiates conversation by making statements or asking questions(why, how, what, where). § Expresses an idea in more than one way. § Uses character voices when retelling a story or event. § Uses multiple-word sentences to communicate. § Responds meaningfully in conversation with adults and peers. § Adjusts communication style appropriately to a variety of settings. § Starts to dictate stories or messages for adult to write out. § Listens while engaged in conversation in order to extend or connect an idea expressed. § Makes comments related to the topic being discussed. § Practice songs, poems, and nursery rhymes. § Ask questions about familiar stories and events. § Speak clearly to child. § Encourage child to express opinions, feelings, and ideas. § Use puppets to retell stories. § Provide opportunities to make choices and plans. § Ask open-ended questions that can be answered by child in own way, to eliminate the need for right or wrong answers. § Accept child’s response to your open-ended questions. § Invent creative games like “message relay,” where child retells a message in a group. § Play mime games that use the body to tell a story or express an idea. § Engage child in conversation about a child-selected photograph or object. § Provide opportunities to speak or perform in front of a group andacknowledge the effort. § Provide opportunities for self- expression and creative representation (drawing materials, blocks, musical instruments for made up songs). § Recognize and encourage alternate forms of communication (dance, drumming, sign,storytelling). § Provide opportunities for socialization in home language. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: COMMUNICATION ORAL COMMUNICATION GOAL 49: CHILDREN COMMUNICATE EFFECTIVELY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months throughKindergarten Adjust communication to varied conversational and situational contexts. § Initiates conversation by making statements or asking questions. § Expresses an idea in more than one way. § Adjusts communication style to listener (when talking to a younger child uses simple words). § Uses character voices when retelling a story or event. § Understands the concept of writing to communicate information or messages (attempts to write a short phrase or greeting). § Draws pictures with objects and people to communicate an idea orevent, with assistance. § Makes, with assistance, a simple storybook using pictures, personal experience, or culture and some words. § Engage child in conversation about a child-selected photograph or object. § Provide opportunities for child to speak publicly for a small group and acknowledge him/her in theeffort. § Reduce a complicated story to seven or eight action sentences and act out movements with child (especially in support of English language learner). A good story to re-enact may be Three Billy Goats Gruff or How Crane Got Blue Eyes. § Provide play opportunities that include materials for child topractice oral and written communication skills (taperecorders, writing implements, paper, story props, andtelephone). § Recognize and encourage alternate forms of communication (dance, drumming, sign, story telling). § Have older child play and socialize in the home languagewith a younger child. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 50: CHILDREN COMPREHEND AND USE CONVENTIONS OF SOCIAL COMMUNICATION. Domain 5: Communication, Language, and Literacy Sub-Domain: Communication Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: COMMUNICATION CONVENTIONS OF SOCIAL COMMUNICATION GOAL 50: CHILDREN COMPREHEND AND USE CONVENTIONS OF SOCIAL COMMUNICATION. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Initiate and respond to social interaction from caregiver. § Turns head in reaction to human sound. § Tracks items of interest (especially people) with eyes. § Initiates nonverbal cues. § Responds to the environment (smiles, cries, grimaces, etc.) § Seeks and maintains eye contact. § Responds positively to physical touch and contact. § Imitates facial expressions. § Initiates communication by smiling and eye contact. § May return a smile or facial expression with caregiver. § Play simple games with exaggerated facial expressions such as peek-a-boo. § Engage child in looking at adult by talking playfully (interacting in front of a mirror). § Express different emotions to the child. § Wave to, kiss, hug, and greet child. § Follow child’s gaze to establish joint attention. § Provide face-to-face interactions, physical contact, and verbal cuesfor the child during daily routines. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: COMMUNICATION CONVENTIONS OF SOCIAL COMMUNICATION GOAL 50: CHILDREN COMPREHEND AND USE CONVENTIONS OF SOCIAL COMMUNICATION. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Sustain shared interactions. § Returns a physical demonstration of affection; a laugh or hug. § Expresses preference for familiar people. § Responds to nonverbal cues. § Engages in vocal play and turn- taking. § Initiates communication using words, signs, and gestures. § Says “no” meaningfully. § Uses object to initiate play with another. § May respond when name is called or signed. § Uses nonverbal gestures for social conventions of greeting (waves goodbye). § May participate in turn taking during one-on-one communication by making sounds or using words. § Respond to child’s facial expressions and sounds. § Encourage child to use vocalizations and gestures to gainattention. § Use gestures when talking. § Play with objects. § Talk about what you and your child are doing as you do it. § Engage in turn taking or circular communication with child, even before he/she uses real words. § Use everyday routines, (meal times) to role-play social language conventions. § Play games that involve turn- taking. § Provide child with play opportunities to talk to other children and adults, with guidance. § Demonstrate, explain, and provide play opportunities for child to practice talking and listening(use a play or make believe telephone, talking to dolls,animals). DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: COMMUNICATION CONVENTIONS OF SOCIAL COMMUNICATION GOAL 50: CHILDREN COMPREHEND AND USE CONVENTIONS OF SOCIAL COMMUNICATION. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Initiate interaction using social convention. § Uses object to initiate play or seek assistance from another child or caregiver. § Initiates communication using jargon, words, signs, gestures, and facial expression (e.g., says“hi” and touches a friend). § Vocalizes wants and needs. § Asks and answers simple questions. § Takes turns in simple nonverbal directions. § May use common expressions of politeness. § Attends to speaker for a portion of a conversation, one on one. § Makes a related comment (e.g., adult says, “Here is your water,” child says “cup” or “water cup”). § Makes a formal verbal or sign request or response (e.g., “Milk please,” “More,” “May I,” “Please,” “Thank you”). § Participates in conversation that builds on an idea, request, or feelings. § Play often, verbally describe, and expand on a shared interest. § Talk frequently with child. § Name and point to pictures and objects. § Use gestures in communication. § Talk about what you are doing during daily routines. § Ask and answer where, what, and who. § Talk and interact with child throughout the day. § Take time daily to have conversations with child that are fun and engaging. § Value and celebrate child’s home language and culture. § Demonstrate, explain, and provide opportunities for child to practice culturally and sociallyappropriate courtesies. § Pay full attention to child when listening to the child. § Use symbolic actions to convey meaning. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: COMMUNICATION CONVENTIONS OF SOCIAL COMMUNICATION GOAL 50: CHILDREN COMPREHEND AND USE CONVENTIONS OF SOCIAL COMMUNICATION. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Actively seek and engage in social interactions. § Attends to speaker during a conversation. § Seeks interaction with others (e.g., “Sing along with me,” “Reada story.”). § Interprets subtle, nonverbal cues. § Asks for help. § Initiates and takes turns in group conversations. § Recognizes appropriate time to enter conversation. § Recognizes rising and falling intonations and what they mean (difference between a “what” question and a statement). § Begins to demonstrate understanding of nonverbal cues(facial expressions for pride, displeasure, encouragement). § A bilingual child can adjust language and communication form according to the person with whom he/she is speaking. § Uses and interprets appropriate language depending on the purpose. § Communicates appropriately with peers during play. § Defines the expectations during play. § Relates personal experiences to others. § Talk and play frequently. § Set up dramatic play opportunities. § Create some situations where child needs to ask for help. § Use props and role-play to encourage child to participate ingroup conversations. § Read or tell stories that involve children sharing ideas. § Make special time to sit down for leisurely conversations that are ofinterest to the child. § Provide opportunities for interaction within child’s own social conventions and also other languages and cultural groups. § Turn off a video or T.V. after 5-10 minutes and discuss the movie orshow with the child. § Provide child with opportunities for problem solving. § Ask child to describe their play. § Use peer models especially for more reticent children. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: COMMUNICATION CONVENTIONS OF SOCIAL COMMUNICATION GOAL 50: CHILDREN COMPREHEND AND USE CONVENTIONS OF SOCIAL COMMUNICATION. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Use appropriate social conventions in communication with adults and peers. § Uses language appropriately with different audiences (uses different words with peers and adults), most of the time. § Uses language appropriately depending upon the purpose (totell stories, get information, ask for help), most of the time. § Adjusts intonation and volume in a variety of settings (whispers when a baby is sleeping). § Engages appropriately in communication with peers duringplay (talking, listening, gesturing). § Engage child in play and conversations that help him/her practice appropriate social conventions (pretend to go to the grocery store or post office). § Provide opportunities for child to engage in conversations in a variety of situations (at theplayground with peers, at the post office with the postal worker,elders at family and community gatherings). IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 51: CHILDREN USE RECEPTIVE VOCABULARY. Domain 5: Communication, Language, and Literacy Sub-Domain: Language Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LANGUAGE VOCABULARY GOAL 51: CHILDREN USE RECEPTIVE VOCABULARY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Respond to voices and environmental sounds. § Moves in response to a voice. § Responds to a caregiver’s voice and mouth. § Responds differently to varied voices (angry versus friendly). § May turn and look at new sounds. § Responds to his/her name. § Talk, sign, sing, and read to child. § Read simple, colorful books to child. § Describe environmental sounds. § Use repetitive sounds to play with vocalization (ooh, la la la). § Respond to child’s cooing and babbling. § Imitate child’s sounds and encourage turn-taking. § Produce non-speech sounds (raspberries and tongue clicks). § Use child’s name when addressing him/her and in caregiving activities. § Point and label objects, toys, and people in their natural setting. § Introduce new words in the context of daily life activities by narrating what child sees, hears,smells, touches, and tastes. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LANGUAGE VOCABULARY GOAL 51: CHILDREN USE RECEPTIVE VOCABULARY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Respond in meaningful, purposeful ways. § Begins to recognize words (Mama, blankie). § Understands simple phrases (wave bye-bye, up). § Responds with gestures. § Responds to the context of “no.” § Attends to music or singing. § Gives objects on request. § May look to or go to familiar objects and people when named. § Understands and responds to simple questions (e.g., “Where is the doggie?”). § Has a receptive vocabulary of over fifty words in home language. § Talk, sign, and sing to child throughout daily routines. § Use simple and repetitive language. § Model appropriate language. § Point and label objects, toys, and people in their natural setting. § Encourage response to vocalizations. § Use variety of experiences - people, activities, and settings to introduce varied vocabulary. § Introduce new words in the context of daily life activities by narrating what child sees, hears, smells, touches, and tastes. § Provide opportunities to point to familiar objects and actions for which he/she knows the names. § Play labeling games (e.g., “Where is your nose?”). § Read picture books daily, including poetry-rich with a variety of sound and word patterns,nursery rhymes, and “baby books.” § Provide developmentally appropriate books (board and/or cloth books that child can touch and manipulate). § Use a combination of “baby sign” and gestures from child’s experience, and words whentalking with child. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LANGUAGE VOCABULARY GOAL 51: CHILDREN USE RECEPTIVE VOCABULARY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Respond reciprocally to an expanding receptive vocabulary. § Understands and responds to simple questions. § Points to body parts. § Follows one to three step directions. § Points to pictures in books. § Enjoys rhymes and finger plays. § Understands some prepositions. § Can match objects and pictures. § Identifies objects by function. § Begins to understand action words. Responds to directions that include verbs (run, jump, reach, open). § Identifies some people, objects, and actions by name. § Talk, sign, sing, and read to children. § Read colorful books to child. § Use expanded, repetitive language. § Use sentence length slightly longer than the child’s wheninteracting and conversing. § Add information to what the child says. § Ask and answer questions. § Play word games (show me, look in the mirror, animal sounds). § Recite nursery rhymes and finger plays. § Talk about what things do. § Provide language-rich environment throughconversation, books, family stories, music, and early inclusionin traditional community activities. § When replying to attempts to communicate, confirm child’s intentions and then extend the topic adding new vocabulary words. § Name new materials and objects when introducing them. § When in a new environment, make up games like “What do you see?” and label aloud what you see around you (animals in the environment, name them aloud). DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LANGUAGE VOCABULARY GOAL 51: CHILDREN USE RECEPTIVE VOCABULARY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Use responses thatdemonstrate an increasedknowledge of specificconcepts. § Identifies objects by category. § Identifies objects by attribute. § Responds to who, what, where, why, and when questions. § Understands simple time concepts (tonight, tomorrow, yesterday). § Understands relationships expressed by if then, or because sentences. § Begins to identify shapes and colors. § Understands number concepts (one, all, sets). § Correctly answers yes and no questions. § Responds appropriately to a request (e.g., “Bring me the green towel.”). § Has a receptive vocabulary of several hundred words in home language. § Distinguishes between real and made-up words. § Recognizes and responds to some family and traditional stories and their meanings. § Identifies parts of an object. § Shows interest in why and how things work. § Follows simple directions. § Identifies verb tense in pictures. § Understands full adult sentences. § Responds to opposites, comparatives, and superlatives. § Appreciates absurdities. § Responds to how questions. § Recognizes and follow routines. § Follows a change in a routine that has been described. § Talk, sign, sing, and read to child. § Read colorful books with words to child. § Play advanced word games (I Spy). § Use the environment to encourage discussion of familiarobjects, places, and people. § Use adult-like language when conversing. § Discuss abstract concepts listed above. § Help the child better understand his/her world through the use of descriptive language. § Use increasingly complex words, in context, and explain theirmeaning when talking with child. § Provide opportunities for child to listen for new words in the environment and identify them when heard. § Make photo “books” for child for identifying people, places,animals, of personal interest. § Play “placement games” to show understanding of prepositions (e.g., “Put the ball under/on top of/beside the table.”). § Converse naturally about what child is doing, listening to, andseeing. § Facilitate and encourage peer language interactions in activities, pretend play, and outings. § Provide opportunities for child to view art from their and other cultures, and explain the relatedstories (totem poles and/or masks). § Invite family members and community leaders to tell traditional stories rich with cultural language and images. § Include child in family and community activities that include traditional songs, stories, and dances. § Introduce a variety of new experiences to child (library, zoo, parks, shopping). § Use expanded adult language when conversing. § Discuss concepts from stories read. § Establish routines in the child’s world. § Compare and contrast objects and actions for the child. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LANGUAGE VOCABULARY GOAL 51: CHILDREN USE RECEPTIVE VOCABULARY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Use responses that increase participation in specific learning and social contexts. § Demonstrates understanding of an increasing number of technical and specialized words (pediatrician is a child’s doctor). § Understands words that mean the same thing (synonyms) and somewords that mean the opposite thing (antonyms). § Engage child in hands-on learning and play that builds upon conceptual meaning of words including art, music, and traditions of child’s family and culture. § Positively acknowledge child when he/she demonstrates understanding of new words. § Build and expand on what child says by using more complex vocabulary. § If you choose to view television, select quality children’s programsfor not more than 1-2 hours per day, watch with the child, andexplain to child the meaning of the vocabulary used. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 52: CHILDREN USE EXPRESSIVE VOCABULARY. Domain 5: Communication, Language, and Literacy Sub-Domain: Language Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LANGUAGE VOCABULARY GOAL 52: CHILDREN USE EXPRESSIVE VOCABULARY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Initiate sounds and facial expressions. § Makes sounds to indicate pleasure, discomfort, wants, or pain. § Begins to use basic turn-taking in communication. § Imitates cooing and babbling. § Experiments with sounds. § Imitates facial expressions and reaching. § Varies intonation. § Respond to child’s vocalizations by interacting, allowing for wait time, and giving full attention. § Respond to child’s crying and describe the intended message (hungry, tired, hurt). § Use playful sounds in interactions with the child. § Use descriptive talk during daily routines (changing diaper, feeding). § Use animated expressions and language. § Describe feelings (hungry, tired, wet). DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LANGUAGE VOCABULARY GOAL 52: CHILDREN USE EXPRESSIVE VOCABULARY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Use meaningful vocalizations and gestures. Use words with intent. § Uses meaningful vocalizations. § Imitates gestures § Babbles using two-lip sounds (“p,” “b,” and “m”) followed by a vowel sound (ba ba ba da da da). § Uses consistent sound combinations to indicate specificobject or person (“dada” for daddy). § Imitates and repeats words. § May use eight to ten understandable words (“daddy,”“bottle,” “up”) and/or “baby signs” (“more,” “nursing/bottle,” “alldone”). § Has a vocabulary of 1 to 50 words. § Uses single words to communicate. § Strings together varied intonation patterns with intent (jargon). § Pairs gestures with words. § Recognizes consonants and vowels in their vocalizations. § Respond to child’s vocalizations and gestures. § Respond to child’s crying and provide words (e.g., “You’rescared.” “You’re hurt.”). § Use words to describe the child’s play and actions. § Describe what the child is feeling (hungry, tired, wet). § Give child wait time during interaction to encourage turn- taking. § Create opportunities for need to communicate. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LANGUAGE VOCABULARY GOAL 52: CHILDREN USE EXPRESSIVE VOCABULARY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Use words and simple phrases with intent. § Increasingly uses words and phrases. § May exhibit a period of silence when learning a secondlanguage. § Expands vocabulary rapidly (up to 1,000 words by 36 months). § Initiates gestures. § Initiates communication. § May ask “wh” questions (why and what). § Asks others to label unfamiliar objects. § Starts to use short sentences. § Uses personal pronouns (e.g., “Me do it.”). § Uses attributes (descriptive words - big boy, red ball). § Expect child to use words to express needs and wants. § Talk, sign, sing, and read to young child. § Expand child’s sentences with descriptive responses (child says, “ball;” you respond, “here is the red ball.). § Model simple sentences. § Encourage use of pronouns from child’s point of view (e.g., “I want milk,” rather than, “Susie wants milk.”). § Avoid baby talk. § When child is attempting to communicate, assume he or she has something important to say and listen carefully. Try to understand the meaning before you respond. § Engage in rich and meaningful conversation about child’s real life in child’s home language. § For an English Language Learner (ELL), learn and use key words in child’s home language including “signs,” if appropriate. § When replying to child’s attempts to communicate, confirm his or her intentions and then extend thetopic. § Explain meanings of words to child during conversations. § Provide opportunities for child to distinguish between real andnonsense words in home language (sing songs that play onwords). DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LANGUAGE VOCABULARY GOAL 52: CHILDREN USE EXPRESSIVE VOCABULARY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Use phrases and sentences with functional and descriptive vocabulary. § Uses sentences three to seven words in length. § Takes turns in conversation. § Answers why, what, and where questions. § Retells an event or story. § Answers simple comprehension questions from a story read aloud. § Memorizes and recite simple songs and finger plays. § Uses new vocabulary in spontaneous speech. § Asks the meaning of unfamiliar words and then experiments with using them. § Uses words to further describe actions or adjectives (running fast, playing well). § Uses multiple words to explain ideas (e.g., when talking aboutprimary caregiver says “mother/father” and/or “parent”). § Uses words to express emotions (happy, sad, tired, scared). § Uses more complex vocabulary to describe events. § Engage a child in conversation and give wait time for a response. § Provide multiple experiences in the community and discuss them. § Talk, sign, sing, and read to young child. § Discuss concepts related to stories read. § Encourage word play. § Introduce rhyming words through word play. § Model for the child how to use and expand language (jokes, rhymes, songs). § Encourage child to repeat rhymes, short poems, expressions of courtesy (e.g., “Ilike the dinner, thank you.”). § Support English Language Learner (ELL) or any second language learner in acquiring another language by avoiding translating everything for child and by using props, gestures, role-plays, pictures, physical movements, and demonstrations. § Engage child in play for using a varied vocabulary to describeemotions (frustrated, discouraged, thrilled, confused). § Model good grammar and avoid baby talk. § Ask questions that reference time concepts (e.g., “What did you have for breakfast yesterday?”). § Provide materials and opportunity to use prewritten language and discuss written communication. § Encourage and model dramatic play (pretend play). § Provide props for make believe. § Respond to child’s descriptive talk with synonyms (child says,“big,” adult says, “huge.”). DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LANGUAGE VOCABULARY GOAL 52: CHILDREN USE EXPRESSIVE VOCABULARY. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months throughKindergarten Use oral and written communication for a variety of purposes. § Uses lengthened and complex sentences. § Uses multiple sentences to communicate experiences and tella story. § Expresses different tenses. § Expresses most feelings and emotions using words. § Names some non-present objects using appropriate words. § Uses words correctly to indicate understanding. § Defines words, with assistance (e.g., “Firefighters put out fires.”). § Play word games with child to encourage the use of new words. § Engage child in making up rhymes. § Ask questions that encourage child to use abstract vocabulary to express complex ideas (e.g., “What would this look like if...?”). § Demonstrate, explain, and provide opportunities for child to understand how a word with thesame sound can mean two different things (here and hear). § Describe and explain the benefits of learning two or more languages and cultures, and compare words and concepts between the languages and cultures with child. § Model rich vocabulary in context (when pointing to object instead ofsaying, “thing,” name the object). IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 53: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE PROGRESSION IN GRAMMAR AND SYNTAX. Domain 5: Communication, Language, and Literacy Sub-Domain: Language Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LANGUAGE GRAMMAR AND SYNTAX GOAL 53: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE PROGRESSION IN GRAMMAR AND SYNTAX. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through8 Months Initiate and respond to change and variety in sounds. § Makes sounds to indicate pleasure, discomfort, wants, or pain. § Varies intonation, volume, and plays with sounds. § Strings together varied intonation patterns. § Respond to child’s vocalizations by giving attention, smiling, or talking back. § Use playful sounds in interactions with the child. § Use descriptive talk during daily routines (changing diaper, feeding). § Use animated expressions and language. § Describe feelings (hungry, tired, wet). DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LANGUAGE GRAMMAR AND SYNTAX GOAL 53: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE PROGRESSION IN GRAMMAR AND SYNTAX. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Begin to use intonation and single words to communicate. § Strings together varied intonation patterns. § Uses no for negation. § Uses intonation to indicate meaning. § Uses single word speech (one word to communicate message;child says, “up” when wanting to be carried by adult) or beginningsign language and symbols (“more,” nurse/bottle,” all done). § Uses some pronouns (mine). § Says short telegraphic sentences (e.g., “Me go.” or “There mama.”). § Respond to child’s vocalizations and gestures. § Verbally describe child’s interactions with the environment(e.g., “You want the bottle.” “You like your blanket.”). § Describe feelings (hungry, tired, wet). § Give child wait time to encourage turn-taking. § Create opportunities for need to communicate. § Acknowledge child’s efforts when he/she uses words and/orbeginning baby sign language to communicate. § Speak in simple sentences using a combination of words and “baby signs” when communicating with child. § Use language in daily routines, talk with child, and associate words with actions (e.g., “First, wewash our hands; then we dry them; next, we open therefrigerator; then we take out the milk; next, we pour it in a glass.”). § Make conversations enjoyable and fun for child. § Use finger plays, lullabies, and songs from both child’s home and other languages. § Communicate with family to learn words, gestures, “signs,” and “baby games” familiar to child that reflect his/her personal cultural experience. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LANGUAGE GRAMMAR AND SYNTAX GOAL 53: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE PROGRESSION IN GRAMMAR AND SYNTAX. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Move from using simple words to more complex word order, word combinations, and word endings to convey meaning more fully. § Uses words and phrases. § Uses primary pattern of noun plus verb. § Experiments with word endings (– ing, regular plural - s, past tense - ed, and possessives – ‘s). § Uses negation in phrase form (e.g., “No milk.” “Not open.”). § Includes adjectives with appropriate placement § Increases phrases from two words to three and four words. § Uses three to four-word sentences with noun and verb. § Describes a self-made drawing. § Uses simple questions in speech, but may not use correct grammar. § Encourage child to use words to express needs and wants. § Talk, sign, sing, and read to child. § Expand child’s sentences with descriptive responses (e.g., child says, “ball,” respond, “here is the red ball.”). § Model simple sentences. § Encourage use of pronouns from child’s point of view (e.g., “I want milk” rather than, “Susie wants milk.”). § Speak with child in complete sentences using correct grammar. § Engage child in conversations that require more than a single word response. § Read books from child’s home language and in other languages,if possible. § When asking child questions, make sure to wait long enough for child to answer. Some children need more time to understand questions and put together words. § Recognize that English Language Learners (ELL) may mix words from different languages in thesame sentence. Repeat what child said using all the words inthe same language. § Provide play opportunities that encourage children to engage in conversation with one another and to tell family stories. § While sitting with child during meals and snacks facilitate andmodel conversation using complete sentences. § Engage child in a game using a small stuffed animal to demonstrate prepositions while saying, “The teddy bear is in the box” or “The teddy bear is next to the chair.” DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LANGUAGE GRAMMAR AND SYNTAX GOAL 53: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE PROGRESSION IN GRAMMAR AND SYNTAX. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Use basic conventions ofgrammar and syntax. § Uses articles in sentences (the ball, a cat). § Uses complete sentences in conversations during play withpeers. § Begins to use correct question forms. § Begins to use prepositions. § Talks in sentences with five to six words to describe people, places, and events. § Uses more complex grammar and parts of speech. § Describes a task, project, and/or event sequentially in three or more sentences. § Asks questions for information/clarification. § Uses sequence sentences in logical order. § Begins to correctly use subject and verb tense. § Strings multiple sentences together in logical order. § Uses complex grammar and parts of speech. § Combines more than one idea using complex sentences. § Engage child in conversation and give wait time for a response. § Provide multiple experiences in the community and discuss them. § Talk, sign, sing, and read to child. § Model adult sentences in conversation. § Ask open-ended questions (e.g., “What do you think?” “What do you think will happen if . . . ?” “What if . . .?” After child answers, repeat the answer in a complete sentence or sentences. § Engage child in meaningful conversations during daily routines. § Set aside a regular time during daily routine to engage child in meaningful conversation (if child is bilingual, in both languages separately, at different times of the day). § Let child know that you recognize all languages and means of expression as a valid means ofcommunication. § When reading with child, point out how text progresses from word to sentence to paragraphs. § Model good grammar. § Ask questions that reference time concepts (e.g., “What did you have for breakfast yesterday?”). § Encourage adult sentence forms in conversation. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LANGUAGE GRAMMAR AND SYNTAX GOAL 53: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE PROGRESSION IN GRAMMAR AND SYNTAX. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Use most conventions in speech form and structure. § Demonstrates beginning skills in using sentences in a logical sequence. § Uses sentences (in child’s home language) that show an emergence of grammaticalcorrectness with subject/verb agreement. § Begins to use verb-tense appropriately with regular verbs. § Begins to notice when simple sentences do not make sense, with assistance. § Use mealtimes as an occasion to encourage child to talk about the events of the day and things of interest. § Model correct grammar in your response when child experimentswith grammar. § Provide opportunities for child to figure out and say the correct phrase, through a game like, “Which is Correct?” (e.g., “Which is correct? - ‘the bird blue big flew the nest a round’ or, ‘the big blue bird flew around the nest?’ ”). § Respond to child’s stories and descriptions of events. § Show value for regional variations of language; compare similarities and differences between languages, including academic school English. § Encourage child to use prepositional phrases in answer to questions (e.g., “Where are yourshoes?” “They are under the bed.”). § Engage child in motor activities in which they are demonstrating relationships to objects in the environment. Describe what they are doing (e.g., “Crawl under the table.” “Walk around the tree.” “Crawl in the box.” “Crawl out of the box.”). § Encourage child to respond to questions in complete sentences. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 54: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE COMPREHENSION AND MEANING IN LANGUAGE. Domain 5: Communication, Language, and Literacy Sub-Domain: Language Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION GOAL 54: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE COMPREHENSION AND MEANING IN LANGUAGE. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Demonstrate awareness and attention to sounds and human voices. § Looks at familiar objects when named. § Turns and looks at new sounds. § Recognizes own name. § Attends to speaking. § Reacts to loud, angry, and friendly voices. § Respond to child’s cooing and babbling, and imitate the child’s sounds. § Talk, sign, sing, and read to child throughout the day. § Read simple, bright-colored books to child. § Describe environmental sounds (e.g., “There’s the door.” “Thedog is barking.”). § When child reaches for an object; label it, talk about it, and give it to child to play with. Repeat the name of the object. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION GOAL 54: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE COMPREHENSION AND MEANING IN LANGUAGE. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Respond and attend to verbal and nonverbal communication. § Looks at familiar objects when named. § Responds to simple directions (e.g., “Wave bye-bye.”). § Turns and looks at new sounds. § Recognizes own name. § Attends to speaking. § Reacts to loud, angry, and friendly voices. § Through play, may understand prepositions (in and on). § Talk, sign, sing, and read to child. § Read colorful books to child. Point to pictures and encourage child to look at thepicture. § Use simple and repetitive language. § Model appropriate language. Use the correct nameof the object (bottle, not baba). Use simple sentences. § Point and label objects, toys, and people in their natural setting. § Encourage response to vocalizations. § Use a variety of experiences, people, activities, and settings to introduce varied vocabulary. § Indicate to child that you comprehend what he/she is saying, gesturing, and expressing. § Engage in conversations with child about things seen or experienced in familiar environments. § Repeat questions and instructions, if necessary. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION GOAL 54: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE COMPREHENSION AND MEANING IN LANGUAGE. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Rapid increase in receptive vocabulary to reflect knowledge of their environment. § Responds and acts on a familiar object when named. § Follows direction, moving from one step to two steps or threesteps within a routine. § Understands new words rapidly. § Understands simple descriptors (hot, wet, tall). § Begins understanding of size concepts, counting, and family members’ names. § Responds to yes/no questions. § Understands location phrases. § Recognizes and responds appropriately to nonverbal cues. § Talk, sign, sing, and read to child. § Read colorful books to child. § Indicate to child that you comprehend what he/she is saying, gesturing, and expressing. § Use expanded repetitive language. § Use a sentence length slightly longer than the child’s when interacting and conversing. § Add information to what the child says. § Ask and answer questions. § Play word games (show me . . . , look in the mirror, animal sounds). § Engage in conversations with child about things seen or experienced in familiar environments. § Recite nursery rhymes and finger plays. § Talk about what things do. § Read and repeat a story often, including stories from diverse cultures and then engage child inconversation about it. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION GOAL 54: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE COMPREHENSION AND MEANING IN LANGUAGE. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Respond verbally and non- verbally to verbal and gestural communication. § Understands new words rapidly. § Responds to simple questions. § Understands location phrases. § Follows simple commands. § Responds to “wh” questions (what, when). § Begins to understand and recall information from stories. § Recognizes and responds appropriately to nonverbal cues. § Follows directions that involve a two- or three-step sequence of actions, which may not be related(e.g., “Please pick up your toys and then get your shoes.”). § Extends/expands the thought or idea expressed by another. § Engages in conversation that develops a thought or idea (tells about a past event). § Understands and recalls information in books and stories. § Understands quantitative concepts (how many more chairs do we need?). § Recognizes and responds in a culturally appropriate way to more subtle nonverbal cues. § Comprehends analogies. § Understands complex sentences. § Talk, sign, sing, and read to child. § Read colorful books to child. § Play advanced word games (I Spy). § Use the environment to encourage discussion of familiar objects, places, and people. § Use adult-like language when conversing. § Discuss abstract concepts listed above. § Help the child explain experiences through the use of descriptive language. § Discuss concepts from stories read. § Establish routines in the child’s world. § Compare and contrast objects and actions for the child. § Play games that involve two- and tree-step directions (e.g. “Crawl through the tunnel, run to the fences, and sit down.”). DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION GOAL 54: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE COMPREHENSION AND MEANING IN LANGUAGE. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months throughKindergarten Respond to verbal and nonverbal communication, andrecognize subtleties incommunication. § Follows two-part and three-part directions unfamiliar to the daily routine. § Uses and understands complex sentences in the home language. § Plays with language (jokes, riddles, words that sound fun together). § Begins to represent a storyline through drawing, acting, or singing; with assistance. § Retells simple stories in sequence. § Demonstrate, explain, and provide opportunities for child to play word games (making puns, asking riddles). § Provide opportunities for child to listen to stories and allow time fordiscussion and interaction and activities. § Tell family stories and encourage child’s response and questions. § Use a game or song to help child learn to repeat multi-step directions by acting out thedirections. § Have child act out or role play a story or legend to show comprehension. “Interview” child afterward from his/her character’s perspective. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 55: CHILDREN USE LANGUAGE FOR A VARIETY OF PURPOSES. Domain 5: Communication, Language, and Literacy Sub-Domain: Language Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LANGUAGE EXPRESSIVE/ORAL LANGUAGE GOAL 55: CHILDREN USE LANGUAGE FOR A VARIETY OF PURPOSES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Use a variety of vocalizations. § Vocalizes to get attention (cries to get needs met). § Experiments with and uses sounds and facial expressions. § Laughs to display emotion. § Shows more interest in people than objects. § Vocalizes to express pleasure and displeasure. § Vocalizes sounds other than crying and cooing. § Respond to child’s vocalizations by smiling and giving attention. § Respond to message behind child’s crying (hungry, tired, hurt). § Use playful sounds in interactions with child; make talking a fun thing to do. § Use descriptive talk during daily routines (changing diaper,feeding). § Use animated expressions and language. § Describe feelings (hungry, tired, wet). DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LANGUAGE EXPRESSIVE/ORAL LANGUAGE GOAL 55: CHILDREN USE LANGUAGE FOR A VARIETY OF PURPOSES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Use vocalizations and words for a variety of purposes. § Produces different cries for different reasons. § Vocalizes in response to vocalization. § Imitates facial expressions. § Vocalizes in response to singing. § Whines with a purpose. § Replaces most gestures with words. § Plays simple games with an adult (peek-a-boo, patty cake). § Responds to peer vocalizations and words. § Says single words to convey meaning (e.g., “Up,” meaning, I want up.). § Respond to child’s vocalizations and gestures. § Respond to child’s crying by providing words forcommunication intent (e.g., “You’re scared.”). § Describe the child’s actions (e.g., “You want help?” “You want something to eat?”). § Provide words to describe child’s feelings (hungry, tired, wet). § Give wait time to child to encourage turn-taking. § Create opportunities for a need to communicate. § Provide opportunities for child to contribute with single words as you make up a story. § Ask “wh” questions (why, who, what, where, when). § Immerse child in a language-rich environment. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LANGUAGE EXPRESSIVE/ORAL LANGUAGE GOAL 55: CHILDREN USE LANGUAGE FOR A VARIETY OF PURPOSES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Use words, phrases, and sentences to meet social and physical needs. § Uses gestures or vocalizations to protest or to gain attention. § Exchanges gestures with adults. § Initiates turn-taking routines. § Uses more words during turn- taking. § Responds to peers with words. § Uses words and gestures to engage others in play (gestures and says, “chase!”). § Uses short sentences or telegraphic speech to announce what he/she has done. § Begins to recount an event, with assistance. § Begins to recall parts of a previously heard story. § Requests to hear familiar stories, songs, and rhymes. § Begins to follow the sequence of events in an orally-narrated story. § Mimics animal sounds. § Support child to use words to express needs and wants. § Talk, sign, sing, and read to child. § Expand child’s sentences with descriptive responses (e.g., child says, “ball,” you respond with, “here is the red ball.”). § Model simple sentences. § Encourage use of pronouns from child’s point of view (e.g., “I want milk” rather than, “Susie wants milk.”). § Tell child stories about his/her family, community, and culture. § Incorporate songs and rhymes into stories you tell so child can participate in story-telling. § Ask open-ended and “wh” questions (why, who, what,where, when and how) to encourage child to describe anevent or occurrence. § Set aside time daily to engage in storytelling, singing, and talking with child. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LANGUAGE EXPRESSIVE/ORAL LANGUAGE GOAL 55: CHILDREN USE LANGUAGE FOR A VARIETY OF PURPOSES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Follow social conventions to access, gain, and share information. § Uses words and phrases to relate observations, concepts, ideas, and relationships. § Takes turns in conversation. § Talks in sentences. § Responds to questions. § Uses words to protest. § Relates past or future events. § Asks questions to obtain information. § Participates in conversations about a variety of topics. § Engages in conversation with peers and adults. § Interprets written symbols, pictures, and letters to a listener. § Uses language to interpret the world. § Uses words to express feelings of self and others. § Uses own words to retell a story or to discuss an event in life. § Engage a child in conversation and give wait time for response. § Provide multiple experiences in the community and discuss them. § Talk, sign, sing, and read to child. § Discuss concepts related to stories read. § Encourage word play. § Introduce rhyming words through word play. § Encourage and model dramatic play (pretend play). § Tell child stories from diverse cultures. § Engage child in conversations that lend themselves to expressing different ideas (explanatory talk, conversations about science). § Talk about daily events with child. § Provide opportunities for child to create, act out, or tell make believe stories. Write them down as the child tells the story out loud. § Encourage child to express feelings verbally. § Introduce a variety of new experiences to child (library, zoo, parks, shopping). § Use expanded adult language when conversing. § Establish routines in the child’s world. § Compare and contrast objects and actions for the child. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LANGUAGE EXPRESSIVE/ORAL LANGUAGE GOAL 55: CHILDREN USE LANGUAGE FOR A VARIETY OF PURPOSES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months throughKindergarten Use language to address functional needs, to solve complex problems, and to create ideas and schemes. § Describes the details of a recent event or occurrence. § Tells stories with descriptions of characters and events. § Uses oral language to express emotions and thoughts. § Enjoys listening to stories from diverse cultures. § Enjoys making up stories. § Tells jokes to elicit others’ laughter. § Creates made-up words and jokes. § Make time daily to engage child in different types of conversation (talking about daily events, re- telling or constructing multi- sequence stories). § When telling stories from different cultures, respond when child indicates interest or curiosity. § Provide opportunities for child to observe (or talk with person who runs) meetings or gatherings where translation equipment is used. § Provide child with opportunities to talk about use of technology indaily life. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 56: CHILDREN DEVELOP PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS. Domain 5: Communication, Language, and Literacy Sub-Domain: Literacy Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY READING GOAL 56: CHILDREN DEVELOP PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Respond differentially to sounds. § Shows beginning sound awareness by reacting differently to different sounds (startled reflex with loud sudden noise, turns head toward a rattling noise). § Imitates vocalizations and sounds. § Recognizes mother’s and father’s voice before he/she sees them. § Calms when he/she hears a repeated lullaby. § Initially makes vowel sounds. § Combine vowel sounds with consonant sounds by the end ofthe period. § Encourage and respond to child’s vocalization. § Use playful sounds in interactions with the child. § Use animated expressions and language. § Sing songs and listen to music. § Label environmental sounds. § Read books with sounds. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY READING GOAL 56: CHILDREN DEVELOP PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Use sounds for a variety of purposes. § Vocalization and use of sounds becomes more complex. § Experiments with sounds such as blending vowels and consonantsin babbling (bababa, dadada) and first words like Mama, Dada, bafor ball). § Begins to label objects, pictures, and body parts. § Makes the sounds of animals and moving objects. § Vocalizes familiar words when read to. § Recites last word of familiar rhymes, with assistance. § Label environmental sounds. § Use playful sounds in interactions with the child. § Use animated expressions and language. § Sing songs and play finger games. § Read books that have sound effects (Dinosaur Roar; Polar Bear, Polar Bear; What Do You Hear?). § Clap, stomp, dance, or finger tap to songs familiar to child as they are sung. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY READING GOAL 56: CHILDREN DEVELOP PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Purposefully engage in activities that promote phonological awareness. § Anticipates action to accompany a song (“Ring around the rosie. . .we all fall down!”). § Anticipates auditory signals in the environment. § Repeats a refrain from a song heard before (E - I E–I–O). § Recognizes and labels familiar sounds in the environment. § Plays with sounds and words when taught (nanna banana, wiggle waggle wump). § Recites phrases from familiar rhymes. § Completes a familiar rhyme by providing the last word. § Imitates tempo and speed of sound (clapping hands fast and clapping hands slowly, speakingfast and speaking slowly). § Engage in songs with activities. § Engage child in songs with repeated sounds. § Familiarize child with rhymes and cadences. § Connect motor movements to finger plays, poems, and songs. § During everyday activities talk about words and sounds (at the grocery store, identify fruits with the same beginning sound: peach and pear). § Use books that focus on sounds to interact with the child. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY READING GOAL 56: CHILDREN DEVELOP PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Manipulate phonemes to make new words and to rhyme. § Discriminates sounds that are the same and different. § Discriminates one sound out of many. § Joins in and repeats rhyming songs, finger plays, and poems. § Listens for a particular word or phrase. § Fills in the missing rhyming word in a song or story. Shows beginning understanding of rhyme and alliteration. § Makes three or more letter-sound correspondences (e.g., identifiesthat “David,” “day,” and “dog” all begin with “d”). § Finds objects in a picture with the same beginning sound, with assistance. § Differentiates between similar- sounding words (three and tree). § Fills in the missing rhyming word in a song or story. § Begins to recognize the similar initial sounds of words that begin the same way (bug, bat, boy). § Identifies the beginning sound of familiar words. § Claps syllables of own name and of familiar words. § Engage child in sound discrimination activities (sound canisters). § Engage child in rhythm activities. § Listen for sounds and words in a book or story. § Have child complete sentences in familiar and predictable books and stories (Brown Bear, BrownBear; What Do You See?). § Use music that emphasizes listening and responding. § Use music for movement. § Make up own silly songs and chants with the child. § Play rhyming games, (e.g., “berry, hairy, scary” or rain, pain,lane”). § Sing word songs, leaving out parts as you sing along (a dog BINGO, and in each consecutive paragraph leave out a letter but mark the spot with silence or a clap). § When reading to child or children include them by involving them inthe storytelling (omit a word that they fill in, encourage them tomake appropriate sounds and hand motions, ask them toanswer open-ended questions). § Use structured opportunities to practice rhyming. § Play sound matching and discrimination games. § Use rhythm instruments to beat out syllables in words (drums, sticks, pans, spoons). § Have child complete sentences in familiar and predictable booksand stories. § Use same activities for previous age group. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY READING GOAL 56: CHILDREN DEVELOP PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Recognize individual sounds in words. § Matches picture with articulated initial letter sound (matches the picture of a dog with the sound “d”). § Begins to recognize vowel sounds, with assistance. § Begins to blend individual letter sounds to make a new word, with assistance (e.g., “b” “a” “l” . . . what’s the word? “Ball.”). § Recognizes which segment of a word is left off when spoken aloud, with assistance, (e.g.,“picture,” and can recognize the “p” is left off when “icture” is said). § When given a word (“man”) and a new beginning sound (“f”), can create the familiar word (“fan”). § Divides words into syllables, with assistance. § Begins to create and invent words by substituting one sound for another (bandaid/dambaid). § Speak clearly, more slowly, and articulate words to child. § Demonstrate, explain, and provide opportunities for child topronounce words correctly, enunciating each part of wordclearly. § Focus on parts of the word when presenting new words to child. § Play listening games with child where he/she blends the onset(first part of a syllable) and rhymes (the ending part) into oneword (r....an, m...an, then change it to r...ice, r....oad). IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 57: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS OF LETTERS AND SYMBOLS. Domain 5: Communication, Language, and Literacy Sub-Domain: Literacy Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY READING GOAL 57: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS OF LETTERS AND SYMBOLS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through8 Months Respond to visual stimuli in theenvironment. § Discriminates between familiar objects (bottle, blanket, rattle). § Initially enjoys faces and contrasting colors. § Responds to visual stimuli (self in mirror). § Starts patting a picture. § Prefers pictures of faces. § Demonstrates awareness of familiar people and objects. § Responds to high contrast and visually complex patterns. § Create a reading routine with child using board, cloth, and plastic books. § Name pictures in books. § Provide toys with mirrors. § Provide pictures and toys with visual contrast. § Create a book with familiar pictures (Mom, Dad, pet, favorite toys). § Sing songs with child and add body movements to accompanythe song. § Encourage exploration of books through touching, mouthing, and playing with books. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY READING GOAL 57: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS OF LETTERS AND SYMBOLS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Recognize visual representations of spoken language. § Points and makes sounds for pictures. § Shows a preference for favorite books. § Can begin to point to pictures when named. § Looks at books and turns pages. § Shows increasing awareness of the sound of spoken words by focusing on the speaker. § Read to child daily. § Make books available to child throughout the day. § Allow child to handle the book and follow the child’s lead. § Respond to child’s growing attention span. § Identify pictures in books and the environment. § Ask child to point to named pictures in book. § Point to words while reading with child. § Read alphabet books with child and focus on pictures. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY READING GOAL 57: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS OF LETTERS AND SYMBOLS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Recognize visual symbols in their environment. § Names familiar pictures in books. § Uses symbols or pictures to represent oral language. § Begins to sing songs with alphabet by rote. § Begins to match similar shapes (shape puzzles or sorters). § Moves finger along in books - pretends to read text. § Holds books upright and turns pages. § Read to child daily. § Encourage child to play with large magnetic letters and blocks with letters on them. § Play games to match symbols and shapes. § Build letters with blocks. § When child is interested, make letters and shapes with a variety of materials (play dough, sand, shaving cream, blocks). § Encourage child’s attempts to identify letters. § Engage child in pointing out letters in environmental print (street names or on billboards, signs, or printed material in home or center). DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY READING GOAL 57: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS OF LETTERS AND SYMBOLS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Recognize letters as special symbols to represent spoken language. § Sings alphabet songs. § Knows that letters are symbols with individual names. § Begins to recognize letters in their name. § Recognizes and identifies letters in the environment (fast-foodrestaurants, stop signs, local stores). § Recognizes beginning letters in familiar words (Mom, classmates’ names). § Names and recognizes several letters beginning with letters intheir own name. § Recognizes written name. § Begins to recognize letters in familiar words and names them. § Begins to make letter sound connections. § Recognizes the difference between numbers and letters. § Encourage child to notice letters in their environment. § Encourage child to experiment and play with letters. § Provide alphabet letter in blocks and magnets. § Make letters with a variety of materials (play dough, sand, shaving cream, blocks). § Point out letters and symbols in the environment (fast-food restaurants, familiar cereal names/logos, local stores). § Play letter games with child. Start with the beginning letter in the child’s name, their siblings, mom,dad, etc. Point to objects in the environment that begin with thesame letter. § Read alphabet books with child. § Solve alphabet puzzles with child. § Immerse child in age-appropriate songs that focus on letter-sound recognition. § Engage child in activities where he/she can manipulate and copyletters using different textures, tools, and mediums (let the childplay with large sponge letters). § Provide physical/motor activities to practice letter shapes (make letters with body parts, make a letter on the floor with yarn, chalk huge letters on pavement and walk around them). § Identify letters in books. § Comment on similarities and differences in letters. § Post children’s names and pictures. § Label areas in environment (table, chair, door). § Provide “letter wall” to practice matching letters and word beginnings. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY READING GOAL 57: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS OF LETTERS AND SYMBOLS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months throughKindergarten Attach meaning to letters andthe sounds they make. § Demonstrates understanding that letters have a name and a sound. § Makes many letter/sound matches. § Identifies a letter for a given letter name, for most letters. § Recognizes letters in own name and the names of others. § Correctly identifies ten or more letters of the alphabet. § Play simple word games. § Point out the letters in the environment and ask child to identify them during daily routines(trip to the grocery store). § Identify frequently used words in print and have child point to words and repeat (to, I, me). §    Fill a cookie tray or shallow box with an half-inch (½") of sand and help child draw letters in thesand as you say the letters. § Provide child with a variety of books from diverse cultural backgrounds. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 58: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS OF PRINT CONCEPTS. Domain 5: Communication, Language, and Literacy Sub-Domain: Literacy Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY READING GOAL 58: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS OF PRINT CONCEPTS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through8 Months Build foundational experiences for later concept development. § Investigates books (mouthing, turning them upside down, moving them from hand to hand, or shaking and throwing them). § Attends to colorful pictures in books. § Establish daily reading routines with children. § Read with child one-on-one so that child observes and handlesbooks often. § Provide child with age appropriate board, cloth, and plastic books for the child to explore (pictures of real faces, animals). § Model holding a book correctly and turning pages. § Explore a variety of printed materials with child (photo albums, magazines, song books). § Follow child’s lead and attention span. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY READING GOAL 58: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS OF PRINT CONCEPTS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Attend to visual features of a book. § Pays attention to pictures in books. § Holds cloth, plastic, or board book. § Turns pages of a board book. § Responds to mirrors and sensory material in books. § Recognizes a picture when named from a book. § Begins to position book right side up. § Shows increasing ability to handle books, without assistance. § Read daily and tell stories to child. § Plan to read and re-read books with patterns and repetition. § Share enthusiasm and love for reading. § Draw attention to the cover of the book. § Make regular visits to the library. § Allow children to select books. § Provide child with board books, cloth, and plastic books that can be manipulated and explored with assistance. § Acknowledge when child is using printed matter appropriately. § Explore a variety of printed materials with child (photo albums, magazines, song books). § Follow the child’s lead when reading together. Allow child to turn pages, point, and babble. § Provide children’s books with photos or clear drawings of babies, faces, animals, and vehicles, with limited words per page. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY READING GOAL 58: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS OF PRINT CONCEPTS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Display awareness of the function and use of printedmaterials. § Handles book with purpose and care. § Knows where books are kept. § Returns books to designated place when asked. § Finds specific pictures in a familiar book. § Begins to turn pages; move from board books to conventional books. § Recognizes specific books by cover. § Communicates a desire to be read to (locates a book and takes it to the reader). § Points to pictures in books. § Holds a book right side up. § May have a favorite book. § Read daily and tell stories to child. § Plan to read and re-read books with patterns and repetition. § Share enthusiasm and love for reading. § Model proper care of books. § Draw attention to the different features of a book (front cover, title, pictures). § Model holding a book correctly and turning pages one at a time. § Follow along text with finger or special pointer. § Read books with rhymes and rhythm. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY READING GOAL 58: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS OF PRINT CONCEPTS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Know that languages and words can be in written form. § Turns pages one at a time. § Begins to read books from front to back. § Enjoys following along as book is read. § Imitates the act of reading a book by looking at pictures, recitingfrom memory, or retelling of familiar stories. § Begins to understand that printed text carries meaning when read. § Differentiates between print and pictures. § Knows first and last page of a book. § Identifies some individual letters in text (usually letters in name). § Shows understanding that letters make up words. § Recognizes front and back of book. § Identifies or recognizes signs, symbols, or labels in the environment. § Recognizes that written words represent spoken words. § Shows general knowledge of how print works (know that name begins with a big letter). § Identifies words that look similar and different, with assistance. § Begins to understand that print progresses from left to right (exceptions are Arabic, Chinese, and Japanese text). § Read daily to child. § Plan to read and re-read books with patterns and repetition. § Share enthusiasm and love for reading. § Encourage child to follow the text with movement, mime, or choralreading. § Provide access to cookbooks, magazines, menus, and catalogues in play areas. § Write child’s name to label personal items, cubby. § Write child’s dictated stories and read back to them. § Assist child in creating books and other printed materials in homelanguage and other languages. § When reading with child, use punctuation to create natural breaks (point to the period to indicate the end of the sentence). § Keep a variety of fiction and non- fiction books, poetry, etc., wherechild can reach them and look through them. Place books nearcouch, chairs, pillows, and or bed. § Add books and print-rich material to all play areas (cookbooks and shopping lists in play kitchen, mechanic manuals with play cars). § Provide opportunities and materials to create books; having children draw pictures and dictatetext. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY READING GOAL 58: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS OF PRINT CONCEPTS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Demonstrate increasing skills in print directionality and understand that print holds meaning. § Demonstrates how to follow text in proper order on a written page while reading or following along (for English: left to right and top to bottom). § Recognizes difference between letters and numbers. § Identifies letters in first name. § Points to the title of a book when asked. § Reads familiar sight words (names on cereal boxes). § Reads own first name and those of some peers. § Reads some environmental print (bus). § May recognize when something is written in his/her home language. § Demonstrate, explain, and provide opportunities for child to use books; introducing the parts of a book (title page, front and back covers). § When reading with child, use punctuation to create natural breaks (e.g., “Let me finish thissentence before I answer your question.” When the sentence iscomplete, point to the period to indicate the end of the sentence.). § Use child-made books to identify parts of the book. § Acknowledge child when he/she uses printed matter appropriately (looks at the picture on the coverpage to find what the book is about). § Provide a variety of printed materials including books in play areas (cookbooks, catalogues, junk mail, magazines). § Provide opportunities and materials to create books; having child dictate story and then drawpictures. § Label shelves and toy containers with picture and printed word; progress to print only. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 59: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE COMPREHENSION OF PRINTED MATERIALS AND ORAL STORIES. Domain 5: Communication, Language, and Literacy Sub-Domain: Literacy Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY READING GOAL 59: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE COMPREHENSION OF PRINTED MATERIALS AND ORAL STORIES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Build foundational experiences for later concept development. § Quiets to a familiar story, song, or nursery rhyme. § Smiles or expresses pleasure when viewing pictures of familiarobjects or people. § Attends to an adult’s voice when being held and read to. § Establish daily reading routines with children. Have a quiet time to share a good book. § Label and name objects in daily activities. § Animate stories with voices, expression, and actions. § Sing, repeat rhymes, and talk to children to soothe them. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY READING GOAL 59: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE COMPREHENSION OF PRINTED MATERIALS AND ORAL STORIES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Engage actively with stories and pictures. § Participates in word games and finger play. § Begins to show preference for favorite stories and books. § Makes sounds to represent parts of a story. § Anticipates action that accompanies parts of a story, song, or interactive play activities. § Responds to pictures, characters, or objects in books (points, vocalizes, or gestures). § Points or makes sounds when looking at picture books. § Points to familiar pictures, characters, and objects in books. § Identifies familiar people and objects in photographs. § Read daily to child. § Plan to read and re-read books with patterns and repetition. § Share enthusiasm and love for reading. § Sing songs that encourage child to listen for and anticipate anaction. § Read books with a predictable story line and sequence of events with child. § Point to pictures as you read and encourage child to do so as well. § Make books with pictures from child’s life, cultural background, and home language. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY READING GOAL 59: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE COMPREHENSION OF PRINTED MATERIALS AND ORAL STORIES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Begin to find meaning in stories and pictures. § Labels pictures with words. § Repeats familiar parts of a story, nursery rhyme, or music. § Uses a questioning intonation when talking about a story. § Responds to “wh” questions (who, what, where, when, why)after hearing or reading a story. § Recalls specific characters or actions from a story. § May have a favorite book and ask for it to be read multiple times. § Pretends to read a book to self or favorite toy. § Uses pictures to describe actions (e.g., views a picture of a person running, child says, “run.”). § Produces a multiple-word response to printed materials. § Anticipates what comes next in known stories, with assistance (anticipates the next animal in ananimal concept book). § May use pretend play to act out familiar story. § Read daily to child. § Plan to read and re-read books with patterns, rhyme, and repetition. § Share enthusiasm and love for reading. § Occasionally, stop to talk about the pictures, answer questions, discuss what might happen next,and think about what the characters might be feeling. § Invite children to join in with repeated and predictable words, phrases, and rhymes. § Help children make connections between the story and their ownlives. § Read books with child from child’s own and other cultural backgrounds. § Label shelves and toy containers with picture and printed word. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY READING GOAL 59: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE COMPREHENSION OF PRINTED MATERIALS AND ORAL STORIES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Understand information from oral stories, reading books, and pictures. § Imitates the act of reading a book by looking at pictures, reciting from memory, or retelling of familiar stories. § Orally fills in or completes familiar text when looking at picturebooks. § Begins to make predictions for what comes next in the story. § Explores characters in stories with puppets, dramatic play, andflannel board figures. § Begins to make personal connections to character and events in a story. § Uses pictures to predict a story. § Matches pictures with spoken words in the home language. § Recognizes own name when spelled out in letters. § Recites some words in familiar books from memory. § Identifies major characters in story. § Begins to understand the sequence of a story (beginning, middle, and end). § Makes up an ending for a story. § Pretends to read a familiar book. § Recognizes that oral language has a written counterpart (a spoken phrase can be written andread). § Describes character and events in stories. § Relates stories to real life experiences. § Retells sequence of events in a story using illustrations in a book or literary props. § Asks questions for clarification and further understanding. § Read daily to child. § Plan to read and re-read books with patterns and repetition. § Share enthusiasm and love for reading. § Provide child with literary props. § Ask child to make predictions about a story and draw connections to themselves. § Show the cover of a book and ask child to predict what will happen in the story. § When reading or telling stories with child, change roles; have the child become the storyteller and “read” to you. § When reading a favorite story with child, pause before an often repeated word and give him/herthe opportunity to say the word. § Engage with child in retelling a recently read or listened to story. § Assist child in illustrating verses from popular children’s songs. § Engage child in looking at wordless picture books, tell the story in your own words, and then encourage child to tell their own version of the story based on the pictures. § Encourage child to discuss their ideas, feelings, and opinions about a book or story. § Recalls specific details or events in a story. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY READING GOAL 59: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE COMPREHENSION OF PRINTED MATERIALS AND ORAL STORIES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Interpret information from stories and printed material. § Knows that print conveys meaning. § Compares stories with real life. § Uses pictures to infer or predict meaning in text read aloud and/or shared with others. § Uses strategies such as questioning or predicting to comprehend printed material. § Recalls a story with some level of detail pertaining to the characters and setting. § Read part of the story in a book and ask child to predict how the story ends. § Use simple stories to help child understand cause and effect (e.g., “Humpty-Dumpty broke intopieces. I wonder what happened.”). § Discuss the theme of the book or the “heart of the author’s message.” § After reading text, allow time for child to discuss their ideas,feelings, and opinions about the book. § Try to read/look up answers to questions with the child (e.g., for the question: “What should you wear today?” read the weather forecast in a printed form to find an answer). IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 60: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS THAT WRITTEN MATERIALS CAN BE USED FOR A VARIETY OF PURPOSES. Domain 5: Communication, Language, and Literacy Sub-Domain: Literacy Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY READING GOAL 60: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS THAT WRITTEN MATERIALS CAN BE USED FOR A VARIETY OF PURPOSES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Build foundational experiences for later concept development. § Uses senses to explore books with different textures. § Experiences new vocabulary paired with objects and pictures. § Read to baby every day. If baby has an older brother or sister, let them read to baby too. § Begin by reading parts of books or very short books with big pictures. § Use a lot of expression in your voice and face. § Let baby touch the pages. § Make a touch book and put one thing your baby likes on each page. Talk about the things while your baby touches them. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY READING GOAL 60: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS THAT WRITTEN MATERIALS CAN BE USED FOR A VARIETY OF PURPOSES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Participate actively in looking at picture books and written materials with caregiver. § Initiates interactions for sharing written materials. § Recognizes pictures that represent real objects. § Shows preference for familiar food labels, clothing, graphics, and characters. § Enjoys books with clear pictures or photos about daily routines(eating, toileting). § Finds comfort and enjoyment in being read to. § Encourage and model looking at books independently and together. § Have child select book to be read. § Let the child lead when reading the book. § Model using printed material for gathering information (cookbook,magazines, and menu). Point out pictures and label. § When reading, ask where’s the _____? Let the child point to the picture. § Look at photographs of familiar people and pets. Talk about whatis happening in the picture. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY READING GOAL 60: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS THAT WRITTEN MATERIALS CAN BE USED FOR A VARIETY OF PURPOSES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Engage independently in looking at books and listening to read stories. § Uses purposefully a variety of books for information, enjoyment, and recreation. § Recognizes familiar environmental print labels and logos (stop signs, cereal boxes,toys). § Enjoys books about different things (animals, occupations, trucks, farms, fairy tales, etc.). § Responds to emotional expressions in books. § Uses labels and pictures to organize and categorize materials. § Enjoys books with clear pictures or photos about daily routines (eating, toileting). § Begin to incorporate print found in child’s every day life into dramatic play. § Play games with letter blocks. § Point out signs in the environment. § Point out child’s written name and the letters in their name. § Talk about environmental print on common products. § Provide child with opportunities to help with shopping (making list,choosing items, simple counting of items). § Model the use of a variety of written materials (grocery lists, notes). DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY READING GOAL 60: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS THAT WRITTEN MATERIALS CAN BE USED FOR A VARIETY OF PURPOSES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Use books and written materials to gain information and enjoyment. § Uses signs in the environment for information. § Recognizes that print is read in stories. § Uses maps, menus, cookbooks, dictionaries during play. § Uses printed materials for entertainment (pretending to read). § Recognizes that different text forms have different purposes (grocery list is different than a written story). § Finds information in books. § Imitates common reading activities appropriately in play (pretends to use directions while putting something together, pretends to write a list or message). § Realizes that letters and words represent ideas and feelings. § Follows pictorial directions for cooking, assembling toys, and building models. § Recognizes that printed materials have power (addresses, phone numbers, last name, knowledge). § Selects books to read. § Cares appropriately for books and pictures. § Read a variety of print including magazines, maps, menus, recipes, environmental print. § Make homemade books using logos, cereal box fronts, and other print forms. § Play games using maps to find hidden treasures within the home or school. § Use reference books to look up information in response to child’squestions (e.g., “I don’t know; let’s look it up.”). § Use cookbooks with pictures instead of words to give a recipe. § Provide opportunities for child to help put something together based on printed directions. Letchild help you and show the child the instructions. § Provide opportunities for child to write and read messages to other children (put SAVE sign on a block or building bricks construction). § Refer to repair manuals, menus, cookbooks, phone books, andinternet sites for information; and place in play areas. § Allow child to write letters and post cards to friends and family. § Discuss different cultures and traditions in stories from different regions of the world. § Re-read favorite stories. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY READING GOAL 60: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE AWARENESS THAT WRITTEN MATERIALS CAN BE USED FOR A VARIETY OF PURPOSES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months throughKindergarten Use books and written materials to expand knowledge and enjoy creative themes. § Uses picture clues for information (attempts to predict weather by looking at picture of clouds and rain in newspaper or on television news). § Recognizes function of common labels in the environment (restroom sign). § Uses a simple cookbook, map, or similar printed material; with assistance. § Makes up rhymes, word walls, and short stories § Engage child in writing letters and cards to friends or family. § Talk about weather-related icons with child. § Identify and talk about different cultures and traditions represented in stories and books from different regions of the world. § Using a family recipe, cook and follow directions to demonstrate how useful and fun these writtenmaterials can be. Write a recipe card/chart using pictures andwords for child to follow. § Promote family participation in literacy-related activities in both English and child’s home language (ask parents to read their favorite book in their home language to child). § Refer to gardening books in the spring when planting seeds withthe child. § Place auto repair manuals in the car and truck play area. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 61: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE KNOWLEDGE AND USE OF LETTERS AND SYMBOLS. Domain 5: Communication, Language, and Literacy Sub-Domain: Literacy Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY WRITING GOAL 61: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE KNOWLEDGE AND USE OF LETTERS AND SYMBOLS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Build foundational experiences for later concept development. § Uses senses to explore the environment. § Provide opportunities to explore objects. § Consider safety with all objects that child handles. Supervise atall times. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY WRITING GOAL 61: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE KNOWLEDGE AND USE OF LETTERS AND SYMBOLS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Begin to create symbols for communicating. § Makes marks on paper and other surfaces. § Explores materials and medium with hands, feet, and body. § Begins to recognize that they can make marks on paper or surfaces. § Provide materials that lend themselves to patting, slapping, pushing, and pulling (flatten clay, finger paint with edible paint). § Point out shapes in the natural environment (wheel is a circle,box is a square) and trace the shape with child’s finger. § Encourage child to make marks in sand, dirt, flour. § With supervision, introduce paper and crayon and have child draw; hang the picture on display and/orshare with rest of family. § Engage child in writing, scribbling, and drawing. Acknowledge their work and comment without trying to interpret. § Use soap crayons in the bath and take turns drawing lines. § Paint with water on the sidewalk or walls. § Provide auditory cues to child’s activity as the child marks thesurface (round and round, zoom across). § Make lines and circles in cookie dough and feel the configuration. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY WRITING GOAL 61: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE KNOWLEDGE AND USE OF LETTERS AND SYMBOLS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Recognize that symbols havemeaning. § Uses increasingly more purposeful scribbling. § Uses drawing and painting expressively. § Uses horizontal scribbling to label drawings or imitate adults. § Makes intentional impressions with different materials. § Notices both words and pictures on a page. § Labels pictures using scribble writing. § Uses symbols or pictures as a representation of oral language. § Demonstrates an understanding that we hear and see words by pointing randomly to text while itis being read out loud (a spoken word is also represented in print). § Talks about the meaning of what is being written or drawn (e.g., “this is the dinosaur eating…”). § May substitute object as symbol (use block as phone or car). § Provide child a variety of writing, drawing, and painting materials and time to experiment with them. § Provide opportunities for child to use crayons, paint, and markers to express themselves and draw. § When reading with child, point to initial letters - especially letters in the child’s name. § When reading with child, point to pictures and words as they areread. § Discuss with child the pictures they have created, focusing on the process of creating (e.g., “How did you make that big blue line?”). § Read a variety of alphabet books with child, including books from different cultures. § Draw attention to signs and symbols in the environment, (stop sign, Chinese writing on a Chinese restaurant sign). § Provide opportunities for child to manipulate magnetic letters by naming the letters or using themto spell out simple words. § Engage child in writing, scribbling, and drawing. Acknowledge their work and comment without trying to interpret. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY WRITING GOAL 61: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE KNOWLEDGE AND USE OF LETTERS AND SYMBOLS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Begin to write and draw to communicate language. § Uses horizontal scribbling with breaks or separate marks to represent writing. § Creates representational drawings. § Uses scribbling to represent their name. § Knows the difference between printed letters and drawings. § Attempts to copy one or more letters of the alphabet. § Labels pictures using letter-like marks. § Knows that alphabet letters are a special category of graphics that can be individually named. § Identifies letters to match the said-aloud letter name. § Works at writing own name. § Shows awareness of the difference between own writing and conventional print. § Shows awareness of two or more different writing systems (especially appropriate for ELL and bilingual/multilingual children). § Uses pictures, symbols, and letters to convey meaning. § Uses letters to represent sounds in words. § Prints some alphabet letters for given letter names. § Provide a variety of writing and drawing tools with different kinds of paper (tablets, shopping lists, loose paper, sandpaper, etc.). § Model writing by writing lists, letters, daily log of classroomactivities, and notes stating the words as they are written. § Encourage the use of creative spelling to label pictures, write name, and write notes to family and community members. § Use the letters of the alphabet as they come up in real life situations. § Call attention to names of children that begin with the same alphabet letter. § Guide the child in writing his or her own name. § Create games for child to pretend to be the letters of the alphabet and call out alphabet names. § Draw letters in sand, shaving cream, finger paint, and playdough. § Give child a special journal to write their name and draw pictures. § Provide opportunities for child to write letters, lists, invitations, cards, and notes. § Encourage child to describe their artwork and label it with letters to represent sounds they hear. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY WRITING GOAL 61: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE KNOWLEDGE AND USE OF LETTERS AND SYMBOLS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Use print for communication. § Works to write own name. § Recognizes several uppercase and lowercase letters. § Prints some alphabet letters for given letter names. § Writes some uppercase and lowercase letters, withoutassistance. § Writes first names of others or some simple words. § Writes some simple words on paper after adult segments wordsinto individual sounds, out loud (c – l – a – p = clap). § Recognizes initial letters in their names and titles of books. § Print an uppercase letter on one shape and its matching lowercase letter on another of the same shape. Show child how to match the shapes, thereby matching the letters. § Model appropriate uppercase and lowercase letters while writing. § Adapt the game “I Spy” to help child locate uppercase and lowercase letters. § Provide opportunities for child to practice writing letters of thealphabet (ask child to help in making signs, or help address anenvelope). § Provide opportunities for child to write letters, lists, or notes. § Help child make his or her own letter books with pictures. § Point to the initial letters of words when reading a book and make the sound that corresponds with the letter. IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 62: CHILDREN USE WRITING SKILLS AND DEMONSTRATE KNOWLEDGE OF WRITING CONVENTIONS. Domain 5: Communication, Language, and Literacy Sub-Domain: Literacy Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY WRITING GOAL 62: CHILDREN USE WRITING SKILLS AND DEMONSTRATE KNOWLEDGE OF WRITING CONVENTIONS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Move from reflexive tointentional hand and fingerskills § Grasps objects. § Begins to use both hands together. § Encourage child to grasp, hold, and explore adult’s fingers. § Encourage child to activate and explore cylindrical rattles. § Allow child to grasp the spoon handle when being fed. § Encourage child to activate musical toys with a cylindrical object or stick, under supervision. § Let child hold book with both hands while adult turns pages. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY WRITING GOAL 62: CHILDREN USE WRITING SKILLS AND DEMONSTRATE KNOWLEDGE OF WRITING CONVENTIONS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Pick up objects with increasing control. § Uses palmer grasp (fist) to hold writing tools. § Picks up small items using pincer grasp. § Crosses midline with hands. § Passes objects from one hand to the other. § Allow child to finger feed small bits of food from a tray or flat surface (peas, cereal, raisins). Provide supervision. § Encourage child to pick up thin books and papers from a flatsurface. § Hold the end part of child’s crayon as the child makes marks on a writing surface. Gently guide the crayon through the desired motion, pairing with an auditory cue (round and round). § Offer large crayons and paint brushes to draw on paper whileadult writes letters or pays bills. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY WRITING GOAL 62: CHILDREN USE WRITING SKILLS AND DEMONSTRATE KNOWLEDGE OF WRITING CONVENTIONS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Begin to use tools to write and draw. § Adjusts body position to facilitate writing. § Holds paper with one hand while writing with the other hand. § Copies vertical and horizontal lines. § Makes circular motions with writing utensil. § Uses a variety of writing tools. § Begins to use fingers to hold writing tools instead of fist. § Uses whole arm to make writing movement. § Scribbles and make marks on paper purposefully. § Names scribbles (tells others what scribbles mean). § Pretends to write on paper, without regard to location or direction. § Provide opportunities for the child to draw. § Model appropriate grasp of writing and drawing tools. § Write and draw with a child exploring various mediums. § Discuss and identify figures that the child draws (e.g., “That’s a circle.” “That’s a straight line.”). § Write child’s comments at the bottom of drawings, collages, or photos. § Engage child in writing in a variety of play settings. § Provide opportunities for child to draw and paint in a variety of positions (while standing, outdoors on a hard surface, kneeling on floor). DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY WRITING GOAL 62: CHILDREN USE WRITING SKILLS AND DEMONSTRATE KNOWLEDGE OF WRITING CONVENTIONS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Use tools to write and draw with increasing coordination. § Uses tripod grasp to hold writing tools. § Begins to demonstrate hand preference for writing. § Uses whole arm and finger movements to write. § Intentionally scribbles to convey meaning; tells caregiver what it means. § Makes strings of letters or marks from left to right. § Begins to copy simple shapes. § Draws a basic six (plus)-part person with some detail and content. § Intentionally scribbles or writes to convey meaning. § Uses invented spelling with letters and marks to represent words. § Uses letter-like symbols to express an idea. § Writes some letters or numerals. § Prints or copies first name. § Attempts to copy words from print. § Draws basic geometric shapes (circle, triangle). § Uses pretend writing activities during play to show print conventions in home language. § Uses letters and symbols to label or convey directions (SV for Savesign on block building). § Model the process of drawing lines, circles, and stick figures. § Provide a variety of art mediums (finger paint, poster paint witheasel, pudding to paint with). § Encourage appropriate grasp to hold writing and drawing tools. § Encourage preferred hand for writing and drawing. § Engage child in activities to develop fine motor control (clay, play dough, lacing boards, beads, stencils, lighted peg games, eye- droppers, tongs, and clothespins). § Cut child’s name into a puzzle, and have them put it back together in proper order. § Dictate child’s stories word for word and read it back. § Provide an accessible writing area for child with smooth writing surface, writing tools, and paper. § Provide paper and writing tools (and/or if you choose to use one, access to a computer) for child to use for specific purposes. § Positively acknowledge child’s attempt to write. Ask them to read you their words. § Provide a “sign-in book” for child to sign in each day. § Ask child to “sign” artwork, cards, and letters. § Point out the shapes of individual letters to help child learn letters. § Write down child’s dictations and read back exactly what he/shesaid (for English language learner, in both languages). § Provide opportunities to talk about what child notices about two different writing systems (especially appropriate for ELL and bilingual/multilingual children). § Provide a variety of writing materials in dramatic play areas, art area, with blocks, cars, etc. Engage child in using materials (take orders for pizza using a notepad in the play kitchen, make tickets to see the art museum, write speeding tickets when playing with cars, draw and label a block structure when child is finished building it). § Explain to child the reason we are writing something down (e.g. “Wewill write a list so that we know what to buy at the grocerystore.” “Let’s write a thank you note.”). DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY WRITING GOAL 62: CHILDREN USE WRITING SKILLS AND DEMONSTRATE KNOWLEDGE OF WRITING CONVENTIONS. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Use tools to copy and write shapes and letters. § Uses writing tool with tripod grasp. § Uses multiple writing tools to create pictures. § Copies shapes and letters. § Uses invented spelling with letters and marks to representwords. § Imitates common writing activities in play (letters, cards, menus). § Uses multiple writing tools (paint, crayons, pencils, and/or pens) tocreate a picture. § Adjusts grasp to size of writing tool. § Demonstrates beginning of creative writing by using inventedspelling and/or pictures to express an idea or story. § Engage child in activities to develop fine motor control (clay, play dough, lacing boards, beads, stencils, lighted peg games, and clothespins). § Cut child’s name into a puzzle, and have them put it back together in proper order. § Dictate child’s stories word for word and read it back. § Provide an accessible writing area for child with smooth writing surface, writing tools, and paper. § Provide opportunities for child to develop projects that involve writing (producing a newspaper or trip journal on a family trip). IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 63: CHILDREN USE WRITING FOR A VARIETY OF PURPOSES. Domain 5: Communication, Language, and Literacy Sub-Domain: Literacy Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY WRITING GOAL 63: CHILDREN USE WRITING FOR A VARIETY OF PURPOSES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Initiate and respond to sensory experiences. § Explores and experiences environment using all senses. § Provide different textures (soft towel, plastic rattle, furry kitty) for the child to explore. § Describe the feeling of objects (soft, hard, fuzzy, cool). § Hold baby in lap while reading from a picture book. Let the baby explore with all senses. § Engage in face-to-face interaction games; use exaggerated facial expressions. § Present bright-colored or contrasting objects within child’s visual field. Gradually hold more objects closer to or farther from child, horizontally from side to side, or in and out of child’s visual field. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY WRITING GOAL 63: CHILDREN USE WRITING FOR A VARIETY OF PURPOSES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Experiment with cause and effect in their environment. § Explores cause and effect on the physical environment. § Makes marks on paper and shows them to others. § Makes marks with fingers (in food, dirt, or sand). § Provide child with a variety of objects and toys that are activated directly by a simple action (shaking, banging, hitting, rolling). § Engage in simple interactive songs with motor actions (EencyWeency Spider, Twinkle, Twinkle). § Give child verbal turn-taking instructions (e.g., “It’s your turn.”). § Engage child in an interactive game. Stop the activity and wait for child to indicate a desire tocontinue the game or action. § Draw and label pictures while talking with child about an activity or idea. § Model uses of writing to child (making grocery lists, writing letters). § Provide different materials for child to explore sensory use of materials and development of motor skills and writing (finger paints, shaving cream, sand). DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY WRITING GOAL 63: CHILDREN USE WRITING FOR A VARIETY OF PURPOSES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Make scribbles and mark in imitation of writing. § Makes scribbles and pictures to share with others. § Imitates the act of writing during play and familiar routines. § Uses writing props during play. § May request an adult to write name or message on their work. § Recognizes some environmental print/symbols (stop sign). § Asks adult to label pictures that he/she has drawn. § Makes cards to give peers and significant adults, with assistance. § Write down what the child says regarding his/her own drawing. § Work together to prepare written lists and notes, and model writingfor various purposes. § Provide a variety of tools, medium, and space for child’s expressive drawing. § Provide props that promote writing opportunities (mail boxes, post office, shopping lists,notepad by play phone). § Create projects with child that involve writing (make a pretend grocery store, label the products). § Provide opportunities for child to observe you writing for meaningful purposes. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY WRITING GOAL 63: CHILDREN USE WRITING FOR A VARIETY OF PURPOSES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Make scribbles, pictures, and symbols with meaning. § Makes scribbles and pictures to express an idea. § Uses representational scribbles and marks during play. § Asks an adult to label a picture. § Uses letter-like symbols to make lists, letters, and stories. § Copies some environmental print/symbols. § Talks out loud about creative ideas and stories, and asks adult to write them out. § Asks adult to write out rhymes, or child’s invented song. § Creates notes and messages for a purpose. § Model the process of drawing lines, circles, triangles. § Provide a variety of art mediums (finger paint, poster paint witheasel, pudding to paint with). § Encourage use of creative spelling to label pictures, write name, and write notes to family and community members. § Write notes to the child and read them together. § Write a story as a small group, writing down children’s exact ideas and words. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: LITERACY WRITING GOAL 63: CHILDREN USE WRITING FOR A VARIETY OF PURPOSES. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Assign meaning to writing attempts. § Creates notes and messages for a purpose. § Dictates stories and ideas. § Shares writing with others. § Imitates common writing activities in play (writing letters, cards, newspaper). § Writes simple expressions in greeting cards and letters (Hi, Hello). § Demonstrates beginning of creative writing by using inventivespelling and/or pictures to express an idea or story. § Provide opportunities for child to write letters and make greeting cards for relatives and friends. § Make a storybook with child that includes both their pictures and words. § Assist child in making labels for different sets of objects (cooking utensils, shoes). IDAHO EARLY LEARNING EGUIDELINES GOAL 64: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE COMPETENCY IN HOME LANGUAGE WHILE ACQUIRING BEGINNING PROFICIENCY IN ENGLISH. Domain 5: Communication, Language, and Literacy Sub-Domain: English Language Learners Birth through 8 Months6 to 18 Months 16 to 38 Months 36 to 60 Months 60 Months through Kindergarten Goal 64 Note: This goal statement only applies to children whose home language is not English. Children must continue to grow and progress in their home language while learning another language. Language in this goal statement only refers to the “spoken word” or oral language and communication. It does not refer to the “written word;” such as reading, writing, or other literacy abilities. Goal 64 Note: This goal statement only applies to children whose home language is not English. Children must continue to grow and progress in their home language while learning another language. Language in this goal statement only refers to the “spoken word” or oral language and communication. It does not refer to the “written word;” such as reading, writing, or other literacy abilities. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS DUAL LANGUAGE ACQUISITION GOAL 64: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE COMPETENCY IN HOME LANGUAGE WHILE ACQUIRING BEGINNING PROFICIENCY IN ENGLISH. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies Birth through 8 Months Initiate and respond to differences in sounds includingintonation. § Attends to spoken sounds. § Communicates needs through vocalization, gestures, facialexpressions, and actions. § Talk to child in both languages, but not in the same sentence. § Choose bilingual books to read and toys to play with. § Use tone to communicate meaning (e.g., “No.” “You’re so cute!”). § Sing songs to child in both languages. Goal 64 Note: This goal statement only applies to children whose home language is not English. Children must continue to grow and progress in their home language while learning another language. Language in this goal statement only refers to the “spoken word” or oral language and communication. It does not refer to the “written word;” such as reading, writing, or other literacy abilities. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS DUAL LANGUAGE ACQUISITION GOAL 64: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE COMPETENCY IN HOME LANGUAGE WHILE ACQUIRING BEGINNING PROFICIENCY IN ENGLISH. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 6 to 18 Months Demonstrate varying competency in learning English depending on age, onset, and amount of language exposure. Continues to develop communication skills in home language. § Responds to familiar words in home language. § Responds to simple voice commands and labeling in two languages. § Communicates needs in one- to two-word phrases in home language. § Uses eight to ten understandable words in home language and maynot possess any words in the English vocabulary. § Communicates needs through single-word speech in home language and through facial expression, gestures, or actions (points to desired object) if attempting to communicate in English. § Connect child to other native speakers, especially other children. § Read bilingual books on a regular basis. § Encourage child to use words in both languages. § When presenting child with words in English, present them in groups (animal names) and within acontext. § Help child link English vocabulary to real-life experiences by using pictures, objects, places, and events. § Continue to use home language with child to build a strong homelanguage base. § Play music from the child’s home culture and in the home language, as well as English. Goal 64 Note: This goal statement only applies to children whose home language is not English. Children must continue to grow and progress in their home language while learning another language. Language in this goal statement only refers to the “spoken word” or oral language and communication. It does not refer to the “written word;” such as reading, writing, or other literacy abilities. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS DUAL LANGUAGE ACQUISITION GOAL 64: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE COMPETENCY IN HOME LANGUAGE WHILE ACQUIRING BEGINNING PROFICIENCY IN ENGLISH. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 16 to 38 Months Demonstrate varying competency in learning English depending on age, onset, and amount of language exposure. Continues to develop vocabulary and fluency in home language. § Often uses sounds from home language when speaking in English. § Has a larger receptive and expressive vocabulary in homelanguage. § Uses increased expressive and receptive English vocabulary. § May exhibit a period of silence before a language surge. § Follows simple verbal direction in home language and attempts to make sense of a direction given in English when accompanied by a non-verbal gesture (signal for come here). § Often uses sounds from home language when speaking in English (e.g., Spanish “v” may bepronounced like “b” so Spanish- speaking child might say “bery”for “very”). § Has a larger vocabulary in home language and is beginning to acquire an English vocabulary. § Recalls words from simple songs in home language and recognizes words from songs in English. § Asks simple questions in home language and uses gestures or single words to ask questions in English. § Occasionally inserts words from home language while speaking in § Encourage parents of second language learners to support home language expansion and expression. § Consistently provide, if possible, adults in the environment who speak the child’s home language. § Read books in native language with supplemental reading in English. § Speak English in ways that help English Language Learners (ELL)to understand (simple sentences, repetition, use of gestures). § Rephrase or expand child’s speech. § When telling a story, substitute a couple of words with words from the child’s native language. English. Goal 64 Note: This goal statement only applies to children whose home language is not English. Children must continue to grow and progress in their home language while learning another language. Language in this goal statement only refers to the “spoken word” or oral language and communication. It does not refer to the “written word;” such as reading, writing, or other literacy abilities. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS DUAL LANGUAGE ACQUISITION GOAL 64: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE COMPETENCY IN HOME LANGUAGE WHILE ACQUIRING BEGINNING PROFICIENCY IN ENGLISH. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 36 to 60 Months Demonstrate varying competency in learning English depending on age, onset, and amount of language exposure. Communicates with purpose to convey information, and uses phrases and sentences with more complex vocabulary in home language. § Recalls words from simple songs in home language and recognizes words from songs in English. § Occasionally inserts words from home language while speakingEnglish. § Demonstrates understanding that there are languages other than the home language (identifies sentence spoken in home language in comparison to one spoken in English). § Relies on non-verbal cues to communicate in English, but doesnot rely on non-verbal cues to communicate in home language. § Focuses on the meaning of words rather than grammar in acquiring spoken English language competency. § Follows linguistic rules of home language and constructs own rules for English. § Uses sentences in home language and begins to use single word or telegraphic speech in English to communicate. § A bilingual child adjusts language and communication form used according to person with whomhe/she is speaking or place where he/she is at. § Provide picture books in child’s native language and in English. § Teach school concepts in both languages. § Teach songs and finger plays in child’s native language and in English. § Encourage the use of English in school by providing a safe, responsive audience. § Model new concepts with pictures and actions paired with English words. § Provide a lot of repetition when introducing new concepts. § Help child develop reasoning skills through use of home language. § Devise strategies that build a home-school collaboration toreinforce home language competency and promote learningEnglish. § Identify and explain patterns in errors of spoken English to help child acquire language competency (Note: do not correct child but guide child by example). § Model positive vocabulary learning strategies (reading cues from the context). § Help native, English-speaking children understand the English language learner’s speech and vocabulary. § Establish a consistent daily routine that promotes a sense of security. Goal 64 Note: This goal statement only applies to children whose home language is not English. Children must continue to grow and progress in their home language while learning another language. Language in this goal statement only refers to the “spoken word” or oral language and communication. It does not refer to the “written word;” such as reading, writing, or other literacy abilities. DOMAIN 5: COMMUNICATION, LANGUAGE, AND LITERACY SUB-DOMAIN: ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS DUAL LANGUAGE ACQUISITION GOAL 64: CHILDREN DEMONSTRATE COMPETENCY IN HOME LANGUAGE WHILE ACQUIRING BEGINNING PROFICIENCY IN ENGLISH. Age Range Developmental Growth Child Indicators Caregiver Strategies 60 Months through Kindergarten Demonstrate varyingcompetency in learning Englishdepending on age, onset, andamount of languageexposure. Uses appropriateforms of communication for avariety of purposes in homelanguage; vocabularycontinues to increase. § Recognizes the difference between words spoken in home language and words spoken in English. § Exhibits a gap between conversational language and instructional language. § Makes consistent grammatical errors (mans for men). § Begins to understand that non- family adults and peers may not understand home language. § Follows multi-step directions in home language and single-step directions in English. § Demonstrates understanding of words used in the home languagethat are different from English. § Re-tells a simple story told in the home language but may only be able to re-tell a few words from a story told in English. § Provide opportunities for child to acquire competency in home language and English. § Use books in English that have repetition and are predictable. § Use home language alongside English in activities (counting to 10, talking about the weather, reciting the alphabet, naming colors). § Provide opportunities for child to share words from home languagewith other children. § Provide an environment of acceptance that supports and respects the home language by bringing the home language to settings. § Provide opportunities for child to practice communicating in English through natural and meaningfulconversation. § Develop a plan for child’s continued use of the home language and acquisition of English.